India Republic of India, Gandhi, together with the
India and Pakistan were once a single country as they had the same ancestry. During the early centuries, the Hindus and the Muslims together created a splendid culture on the same piece of land in the same country. In early 17th century, the British began invading the South Asia. In 1757 part of the Parkistan and the whole India in 1849 became a colony of the United Kingdom, and was helplessly under its control. In 1947, the last British Governor, Louis Mountbatten, of India announced the partition of India and Pakistan.
This leaded to the conflicts which are still an important issue nowadays between Indian and Pakistan. To resolve conflicts between religions in the South Asia subcontinent that had been existing for many years, in 1942 the Muslims proposed the establishment of their own Muslim countries (Pakistan), thus advocated the rule of India should be divided into three zones, the Hindus area, the Muslim area and the territories state. However, the founder of the Republic of India, Gandhi, together with the Indian National Congress Party leader strongly disagreed towards this proposal.
They had always opposed against the idea of partition of a nation. In response to this, the British government proclaimed the post war self governing status to India. During 1947, Mountbatten officially announced to the world the program of the India-Pakistan partition. In this program, Pakistan was combined at the East and the West, known as Dongba and West, where the two residence of these places had different cultural and ethnic backgrounds.
These big differences of ethnic, cultural and linguistic might potentially leave a predisposition for the country to start an internal conflict in future. The Mountbatten program divided the territories merely by regions of common religion in the expense of overlooking language, culture or ethnic differences. This had caused endless consequences between Pakistan and India. And the issue on the Kashmir between the two countries was immediately resolved to arms after independence in 1947.
Kashmir should have had the freedom of choice to enroll in India or Pakistan as stated in the “Mountbatten Program”. The place Kashmir had an uneven population where 77% were Muslims and only 20% were Hindus. When some conflicts were created between India and Pakistan because of the British government, Kashmir’s sovereignty were handed over to the Hindus. The first Indo-Pakistan war in 1947 resulted in Pakistan conquering two fifth of the Kashmir and the remaining three fifth Indian. In 1965, India and Pakistan once again went into war for the splitting of Kashmir.
Later on, the Soviet Union and the United States put pressure on India and Pakistan, so the second Indo-Pakistan war ended. However, this program also suggested that the British Indian territories states the right not to join the newly established Indian Federation, which provoked this original united land to further subdivide into two, or even more political entities, thus opening the door for partition. This implied that the East Pakistan (Bangladesh) may become independent. In 1971, Bangladesh successfully gained independence from Pakistan.
In the same year there was another outbreak of war between these two countries, the had war expanded to West Pakistan, and had expanded into a full-scale war. It lasted for 27 days and this war was the dismemberment of Pakistan, thus greatly weakening the more aggressive competitors with India. This would imply a deficiency of motivation of international development within the South Asian subcontinent. In mid 1990s, Indian security forces began arming and training local auxiliary forces made up of surrendered or captured military hostage to assist in counterinsurgency operations.
And in 1998, India tested five nuclear devices, in the months following the tests, there was a sudden rush in shelling and shooting by the Indian. The Pakistani remained with the ceasefire line. And again in 1999, India test fired a few long range missiles for in few days. Then Pakistan did the same in return. Yet another war between India and Pakistan. From gaining a knowledge at the history, a brief idea of the reasoning behind past wars and conflicts lets us understand why they are still happening between India and Pakistan.
History of a country enables us to draw a overall pattern of the change over time and leads to hypothetical prediction for the future. With this in hand it is more possible for things to be done before disasters happening again at no one’s will. Seeing the amount of not only economic and social drawback, but more importantly brutal consequences of innocent people caused by actions which overlooked vital factors, the governments must now learn from the mistakes in the past and avoid any unnecessary mistakes.
South Asia is a very important region on earth. It entails over 1. 4 billion people which is more than one-fifth of the world’s population, the region it lands on is desirable for vegetation, on top of that it has other inherent abundant natural resources and there is a high rate of energy demand growth. Economically, South Asian countries have always dominated a large industrial proportion as rice, cotton, tea and jute in the world are playing an important role in world trades. This should potentially provide then a more well-off situation.
Recent years, some countries have draw on the useful experience of economic development from other countries outside the South Asia and learn from them. They even have taken a number of practical measures. Despite striving to get better on its economic, political, social aspects and legal structure to support the growth, South Asia will have a long way to go as its foundation was never given the chance to be fully developed. The key to fundamentally improve underdevelopment is to compromise between all political parties in the hope of creating a better tomorrow for people they are each responsible for.
References: Bullion, A. (2001) ‘Norway and the Peace Process in Sri Lanka’, Civil Wars 4 (3): 70-92. (Course-Pack) Bullion, A. (2004) ‘Norway and the Sri Lanka peace process -Waiting game’, World Today 60 (2): 18-19. (Course-Pack) Lewer, N. ; J. William (2002) ‘Sri Lanka: Finding a Negotiated End to Twenty-Five Years of Violence’ in M Mekenkamp, P. Tongren ; H. Van de Veen eds. Searching for Peace in Central and South Asian: An Overview of Conflict prevention and Peacebuilding Activities. London: Lynne Rienner Publishers.
(Course-Pack) Rieff, D. (2002) ‘Afghanistan’ in D Rieff ‘A bed for the night: Humanitarianism in Crisis’ (London: Vintage) (Course-Pack) Vanx, T. (2001) ‘Afghanistan: Pride and Principle’, in ‘The Selfish Altruist: Relief Work in Famine and War’. (London: Earthscan) (Course-Pack) Center for Contemporary Conflict (2006), CCC Research: Asymmetric Conflict in South Asia -The Cause and Consequences of the 1999 Limited War in Kargil [online] http://www. ccc. nps. navy. mil/research/kargil/index. asp (accessed 09/03/06) 1.