Indonesia adapted ducks are useful biodiversity resources

Indonesia has a high duck and waterfowl diversity.
The duck diversity is marked by many species, which spread from Sumatra, Java,
Bali, West Nusa Tenggara to Kalimantan (Tamzil & Indarsih 2017). Indonesian
ducks belong to the Indian Runner (fast runner ducks from India) which
originally came from India (Batty 1985). Statistic data from FAO
( exposes that total population of ducks in
Indonesia is 38 million in the year 2013. Duck production plays an important
part in the agricultural economy of many Asia countries. The continent alone
accounts for 82.6% of the total duck meat produced worldwide (FAO 2010). Duck
meat is recognized as a healthy food in Asian countries. In particular, duck
meat consumption in Korea has rapidly increased over the last decade. Duck meat
is rich in unsaturated fatty acids and consumer preference for healthy meat is
now three times greater than that during the last decade (MIFFAF Korea 2013).
Southeast Asian countries have conserved various native duck species because
the center of duck meat consumption in Southeast Asia, including Korea, is
located in a migratory bird flyway (Kraus et al. 2011). The characterization
and conservation of ducks assume prime importance as they provide food security
to the rural folk. These locally adapted ducks are useful biodiversity
resources as they are important genetic reservoirs essential for facing the
future challenges of disease resistance and better quality meat (Gaur et al.
2016). Ducks together with the ostrich, emu, peacock, turkey, quail, and other
birds play a major role in studies on bird evolution. Up to now, most available
data concerning ducks have come from heritabilities and genetic correlations of
some traits (Bochno et al. 2000) and epidemiology (Susanti et al. 2008; Li et
al. 2003; Hatta et al. 2002). Most available molecular data have come from
evolution studies based on the analysis of mitochondrial DNA sequence (Susanti
et al. 2017; Jin et al. 2014; Jin et al. 2012). Few studies about genetic markers
in the duck are limited (Alyethodi & Kumar 2010; Kraus et al. 2011; Seo et
al. 2015), and therefore we characterized ten microsatellite markers for
Central Javanese duck. Genetic fingerprinting has been utilized in identification
process of species, variation, individuals, breeds, and even cultivars
cultivation technic, It also used to do genetic mapping in plant species and breeding,
connection among animals, medical applications, and in a range of population
genetic and ecological applications (Baratti et al. 2001; Bochno et al. 2000;
Chowdhury et al. 2001). One of the important DNA fingerprinting methods is species-specific
microsatellite analysis.. Microsatellites or simple sequence repeats (SSRs) are
short repetitive elements of 1-6 bases that originate in prokaryotic and all
eukaryotic genomes (Schlotterer 2000). These repeat motifs present in both
coding and noncoding regions of genomes (Ellegren 2004) are smaller than 100 bp
(Stolle et al. 2013). The microsatellites are highly polymorphic, copious, reproducible,
and, inherited co-dominantly, and distribute throughout the genome (Saavedra et
al. 2013). The high rate of mutation of alleles and genomic DNA, makes
microsatellites very effective molecular markers to do population genetics
analysis, genome mapping, genetic fingerprinting, linkage analysis, taxonomic
study and diversity (Olango et al. 2015). Microsatellite is chosen as a marker for
diversity and relationship analysis among different species of poultry and
livestock including buffalo, camel, and horse (Vijh et al. 2007; Vijh et al. 2008;
Khashour et al. 2013). Native breeds need to be protected for biodiversity
conservation and development of economically important traits, which would also
be valuable ecologically and to breed survival.

Development of breed-discriminating genetic markers
and conservation strategies are important for breed conservation and trait
development. In addition, duck breed classification analysis can provide
additional information for preventive veterinary inspections for avian
influenza (AI) viruses (Groepper et al. 2014; Ramey et al. 2014).
Identification and characterization of local duck are important since the data is
used as sources of Indonesia germplasm and help the breeding program. In the
absence of information about the genetic attributes of each breed available for
a breeding program, development of local breeds is often ignored in favor of
the introduction of germplasm from exotic breeds, about which environmental
adaptation information is generally unavailable. These pose a great risk for
the loss of valuable genes. To surmount the situation the Food and Agriculture
Organization of the United Nations (FAO) recommended establishing conservation programs
for the maintenance of animal genetic resources. These include among many other
actions the identification and characterization of local breeds. The objective
of this study was to the characterization of central Javanese duck breeds in
Indonesia using 10 microsatellite markers

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