Inequality can start from these type of questions.

Inequality is a
growing problem for all countries in today’s capitalist world. We as
human-beings expect to have a happier life so that we want to earn more money
to live better. But, I think, increase in inequality is biggest obstacle. So,
why we are expect to live in a more equal society and want more equality among
human-beings, what the reasons behind inequality, and why people distribute
themselves from other people. In order to understand the reasons of inequality
in general, I think, we can start from these type of questions. In order to
analyze inequality, maybe we have to look at income inequality. Max Roser and
Esteban Ortiz-Ospina (2016) argue that starting from late 19th
century, income inequality started to decrease dramatically and it has reached
historical lows in the late 1970s. But, in 1980s it again increased sharply.  More global world, increase and changes in
technology, bargaining between labor unions and firms about worker salaries,
taxations and government spending or maybe in kind transfers to households, and
link between economic growth and inequality can be reasons of increase in
inequality since 1970s. I also believe that the crises in 1970s, 2001, 2007 and
2009 have a possibility to increase inequality while decreasing the income of
people.  Since 1970s, economic structures
of the countries changed, production styles changed. The gap between poor and
rich people are widened. And then, rich ones started to more financial
investments. In addition to financial investments, people started to invest in
education. As a result, poor families’ children are forced to go to the
low-quality schools or directly forced to start a job early to maintain their
lives.  People at the top in the pyramid
of capitalist system get more benefits from the best universities. So,
education becomes another factor for inequality. In addition to education,
religion, existence of free markets (capitalism’s nature), privatization can be
another points for inequality. If I want to conclude by answering the question
that why we would expect more equality among humans, none of us lives our lives
with equality of how we are dealing with the conditions of life. We have not
same tastes and preferences and we are not equally old or have not same
experiences or chances in the life. Even we have not same resistence for a
disease like cancer. So, in order to answer of the question of why inequality
rises, we have to ask what society and/or our life would have to be like to
succeed equality. I think, understanding the reasons of inequality is the first
step in assess to what can be done.

 

2)  What
are the core reasons behind the economic instability in Europe? In your
opinion, what will be the future of EU? Discuss.

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Europe consist of
many well-regulated financial markets in many fields from banking to
technology. But, Europes’ economy has started to challenged by some political
and economical issues. The core debate for Europe must solving sovereign
government debt and eliminating threats for Europe’s banks because in  my opinion, 2008 global crisis is the main
cause of the economic instability of Europe and it mostly affected small counties
which has own debt problems like Greece. 
It is obviously seen in Europe that unemployment becomes the most
important for many countries in Europe. According to Keen(2017), average
unemployment in the EU is 8.6% and there is instability and divergence within
EU. He states that Germany is fine in unemployment rate. Also France and Italy
that are respectively second and third largest economies have 10 % unemployment
rate. However, for Spain and Greece, the circumstances are different because
they are suffering from high unemployment rates of 20%. In Spain, rather than
excessive government debt, the crisis caused by excessive private debt. As a
result, by obsessing only government debt and completely ignoring private debt
is the actual reason of EU’s crisis in 2008. Unemployment crisis is an
political crisis on the other hand and it is correlated with those issues. In
addition, with the effects of 2008 global crisis,  not only economy of EU affected but also
political side affected.  Brexit  (Britain & exit) is the consequence of
political and economical instability in the EU. Britain has the second largest
economy in the EU, making biggest contributions to the EU budget and have a
significant military and nuclear power. For Britain, EU is not a free trade area
and it wants to exit for free trade with the World outside the Europe. And in
my opinion, it want to exit because of in order to have a more stonger
democracy and more financial and economical stability. According to
Newsome(2017),  the EU is illiberal and
antidemocrat in the region of liberal and democratic states. If I want to talk
more about the Europe, todays world order is tend to shift to the East – China,
Japan, India. Until today, the world we live in has shaped by Europe.
Capitalism and democracy embodied with Europe. many countires in the world are
following the Europe as economically and politically – the case of liberal
democracy and liberal economy. But, maintanence of Europe is a question mark
for me because nowadays Europe has some problems including high unemployment
rate, especially Greece and Spain, excessive government debt and private debt
crisis and some financial instability. Maybe, these problems can cause chanes
in a new world order .

 

3)  Does globalization decrease or increase
poverty? Discuss. Can any developing country replicate the success of Japan,
South Korea or China in terms of decreasing poverty? Explain.

 

           The world where we live in is
becoming more interconnected in economical, cultural, political ways and people
are now more closer to each other than previous times.  The world is now more interconnected with
recent technological innovations and interdependence of economic expansions
that cause the emergence of winners and losers as class struggle within and
between nations. So, what I understood from the concept known as
“globalization” is that goods and services in a county is transferred easly to
the other country with easy communication thanks to the innovations in technology.  Globalization which is the growth of
developing countries and LDCs brings some disadvantages as well as
benefits. 

 

First of all, I want to start my debate with talking about
the benefits of globalization in the case of independence of developing
countries . It enables to countries deal with the problem of unemployment as a
social problem. I think, unemployment  leads to increase in social crime rate in
countries and increases poverty and illiteracy rate. Also, it leads to cheap
labour force. But, we can see the benefits of globalization with the effects of
foreign direct investments(FDI). Multinational companies can hire the
unemployed people for the benefit of host country. Also, these multinational
companies bring their country’s culture, lifestyle and technological
innovations into the host country. In doing so, the poor countries living
standarts increases and increased competition helps to situmulate growth of FDI
and with technological innovations, economics outputs increase efficently.

 

Secondly, globalization can allow the emergence of winners
and losers of globalization from the presentation of Mehmetcan and Derya’s
presentation in the class.  According to
neoliberal globalists, globalization leads to decrease in poverty and
inequality creating more jobs with free trade and FDIs. But, in fact, Marxists
saw only division of labor in the workplace and existence of class struggle. It
only deeper the gap between rich and poor. The situation is indifferent between
states economical wars, I think. As a game of win or lose,  countries may try to exploit each other in
order to get more profits and to become a leader position in the world like the
relationship between the US – Europe and –China.

 

As a result, I saw the globalization is the child of the more
capitalist world. Although it brings many advantages to the countries and its
citizens like economic expansion, more technological innovation with
international transfers, increased competition among nations, and cheaper
products and lower costs, it brings disadvantages to the countries.
Globalization can cause more inequality and more poverty.

 

4)  In your opinion. How will the world economy be
50 years from now? Do you think the New Green Deal and Feminist Approaches
provide viable alternatives for the future economy? Discuss.

 

Of course, in
order to give ideas about the future of world economy, we have to understand the
system in which we are living,capitalism, has emerged in the past. I think
capitalism has changed itself as global capitalism in the 21st Century. And,
now, we can see new face of capitalism at the threshold of new economic and
political crisis. Intersections of social good and technology start to grow. Technonological
revolutions especially in information systems and communication, international
transportation, more cheaper products with substitute ones gave rise to new
globalized system for economy and politics too. According to Robinson (2017),
capitalists achieved a global mobility in a dual sense; first, new technologies
leads to global organization of economy and second, policymakers tried to
eliminate barriers to the free trade with deregulations and free trade
agreements – emergence of Europian Union. 
Thus, we can see the shift form world economy to global economy by
analyzing the new form of capitalism in a more global world. In fact, I am
expecting a structural crises of capitalism had marked by the financial crisis
of 2008 because this new type threathens ecological limits of the world and
environmental chages that leads to climate disruption. Unfortunately, we are
living in a finite world and we cannot expect inlimited growth. According to
Heertsgaard(2001),  the US government
launched it to protect the world from mainly climate changes by investing in
technology to create an energy efficieny economy. It is government-led, market
based plan to solve nation’s energy problems while yielding economical returns
and climate change. The deal must be green; it would clean up the environment
we live, also make money for workers and owners of capital.  So, the technology is only a mean to reach
the goal of that programme. Besides economical problems, some political issues
come into existence. For example; the case of Brexit. Britain saw EU as not a
free trade area and wanted to exit from EU to make free trade with the World.
It was needed because Britain wanted more financial stability and more economic
growth in the new world order.   

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