Mental health illness is a generic description for range of
illness and behaviour patterns cover a wide range of conditions that affects
individual thinking, feeling or behaviour and may affect their ability to
interact to others and having difficulty functioning each day.in general mental
illness is a disturbance of emotional equilibrium, as manifested in maladaptive
behaviour and impaired function caused by genetic, physical, chemical,
biological, social or cultural factors. However, it’s often the case that
emotional equilibrium will change as the individuals come across different
situation. Some individuals may find easy to cope with and others may find
similar situation to be difficult to cope with the same diagnosis.
Mental health is that for everybody there is a mental health
continuum. We can think of it as a straight line everyone will be at different
mental health continuum where it is at different times in their life or may
different from day to day or throughout the day.
A model is an approach which helps give a better understanding
of how to help individuals with mental health issues. There are different
models of approach for mental health illness which are the medical model,
social model, psychological model, community care model, the holistic model,
the client centred model and the recovery model etc.
The medical model was founded in the 19th century when individuals who were
suffering from mental illness were kept in asylums. The medical model changed
the views of individuals as there was an increase in the medical knowledge
known. This medical knowledge began to show that mental illness was physical
and that it could be treated with medication. This then led to an increase in
the number and size of asylums which were often found in urban areas. The
medical model believed the cause of mental health were environmental factors,
physiological factors and genetic factors along with a few others. The medical
model believed that if the cause of the illness was physical then they should
treat the physical symptoms. They went on to use prescription drugs such as
anti-depressants, tranquillisers and anti-psychotics medications to treat the
illness. They also used procedures such as ECT (electro-convulsive therapy) and
brain surgery to cure the illness. The medical model was very much focused on
curing the illness instead of treating the individual and paid very little
attention to the psychological causes.
The social and community care model came along in the 20th century.
The social model began to
have a more sociological view of mental illness and believed that environmental
factors such as poverty, social isolation, sexual inequality and stressful life
events among many others were the main causes of mental illness. The social
model also argued that the asylums were not helping the patients and that those
individuals who lived in them found it hard to reintegrate into society. The
social model believes therapies such as individual therapy, family therapy and
therapeutic communities would help empower the individual and make them ready
to go back into the community which is where the community care model was then
formed. This model used components from both the medical and social model and
was based on the NHS and Community Care Act 1990. This showed us that
individuals should not be locked away in asylums and that they should be
treated in the community and be entitled to services which would help them to
do so. It shows us that services should be based on the needs individual and
not just a job. The main aim of social model was to remove the stigma behind
mental illness and make it acceptable to be mentally ill and living in the
community. This led to many of the asylums and institutions to be closed which
then enabled people to be cared for in their own home. A few of the services in
which the community care model introduced were services such as home helps,
meals on wheels, home adaptation, supported training, residential and respite
care. The community care model is still very much used in the 21st century.
Legislation, policy and code of conduct improve the quality of
care for individuals. Also protects both individuals and care workers, and
provides practical guidance as to best practices related to health wellbeing
and safeguarding. Evaluating and updating the policy, legislation and codes of
practice help to ensure that standards are current, relevant, clear to
individuals and care workers and ensure the health wellbeing and safeguarding
of all individuals.
The Adult Support and Protection (Scotland) Act 2007 is one of a
piece of legislation brought in to try and protect individuals being abused.
This because there are certain individuals who might having more difficult to
stop harm and abused happening to them, individuals in this situation referred
to as” Adult at Risk”. The Adult Support and Protection Scotland Act
introduced the duties and powers to
safeguard adult who may be at risk and ensure that individuals are safe and
free from harm. Scottish Social Services Council ensures carers who have abused
in anyway to be banned from working in a care setting. This would apply to
individual as it would enable individual to feel safe and secure with carers
and confident that they will come to no harm.
Another a piece of legislation which protect individuals is
Adults with Incapacity (Scotland) Act 2000). This act was put in place to
ensure that the individual’s needs were put first when they were not able to
make decisions for themselves. It allows Sheriff Courts to appoint guardians on
behalf of individuals and ensures that anything done on their behalf will
benefit them and respect their wishes. It is also important that this is done
without limiting the person’s freedom. This could benefit individual in the
future when they are not able to make decisions for themselves as they would be
able to pass on the power of their decisions.
This Act will benefit for individuals who live in care home as
many of them are suffering from dementia, communication difficulty and may not
be able to make decisions on their own. This will make sure that if individuals
wish to sign over power of attorney that the decisions made will benefit them
fully. This may also stop individuals from becoming anxious or frustrated with
certain aspects of their care as they don’t have to worry about making
The code of practice which is guided by the Scottish Social
Services Council work to implement the standards of care supported by
independent assessment and which integrates a critical consideration of how
care home issues can be addressed. The challenge for the code of practice is to
ensure that adequate standards are guaranteed, while ensuring that localised
problems are attended to on a continuous practice development focus on
safeguarding residents using a risk management approach. The code of practice
focus on ensuring that all staff raising awareness through training and
continuous practice development.
The employer also ensures
all staff are competencies, register with SSSC, have training and skills are
appropriate and match the needs of the residents and that the environment is,
itself, safe and conducive to enhancing the quality of life of the residents.
Prevention and early intervention for individuals. It means
making day-to-day living easier and giving them full and meaningful lives by
promoting well-being and independent lives. Also identify the key to challenges
that need to be addressed to reduce crisis intervention. Early intervention
and prevention can promote the healthy wellbeing of individuals who live in the
care home such as by tackling problems, acting and using risk assessments.
One of health measures
and policy in making sure that individuals get high quality of care they need
and safeguarding is Accurate record-keeping. The staff adhere the code of
conduct by maintaining clear and accurate records as required by procedures
established for their work which follow (SSSC Code 6.2) In my work place all
residents have a care plan which is up to date regularly that help staff can
understand the needs of everyone. In addition, everyone has communication books
which help to make sure that staff working on different shifts are working as a
team. Individual log books or end of shift reports also help to give a picture
of the individual’ s day. Matters which need follow-up can be noted. For
example, a night shift worker might make a note that someone said they were
feeling unwell at bed time. The day staff can find out if the person is better
in the morning and decide if a doctor’s appointment is needed.
It is important to make sure that you are recording the right
kind of information. For example, it is more important to record whether
someone is happy or sad than to write down what clothes they chose to wear or
what they ate for lunch.
Accurate records can help to identify abuse and poor practice. For this to
happen, it is important that records are reviewed. This means looking back over
several weeks or months to see if a pattern of behaviour can be seen. For
example, does a service user often seem unhappy or display challenging
behaviours when a member of staff is on duty?
If an incident has taken place in my placement which could be
abuse it is important to record what happened. After any incident always, I
write down what I saw as soon as possible. What I write should describe what
happened and not describe my feelings about what happened. It is important to
be as clear as possible. Other staff who saw what happened should also write
down what they saw. Different people may have seen different things. Later, it
may help to talk to other staff about how the incident made me feel.
Another health measures and policy in making sure that
individuals get high quality of care they need and safeguarding is Reporting
Incident and Accidents. In my work place all care workers had the duty to
report any abuse or poor practice to their manager. Which follow also on the
code of practice If, the abuse or poor practice carries on then care workers
should report their concerns to a more senior manager. Also, can report their concerns directly to
the local authority Adult Safeguarding team SSSC or directly to the Care
Inspectorate. Care Inspectorate can suggest for staff to be suspended from work
while they investigate the abuse, also they can recommend changes to prevent
any abuse in the future happen.