This section of the study will starts from the background of the study and then will briefly guide the reader about the importance of the study in general and the importance of the study specifically in perceptive of Pakistan. moreover, this section will also guide the reader about the scope and extent of this study and will also provide the problem statement and Uniqueness of the study. lastly, this chapter will end by informing the readers about the Research question, objectives and the Hypotheses of the study.
Background of study
In Pakistan, Mobile phones or wireless subscribers have dramatically increased in past decade reaching almost up to 145 million which is nearly 70% of the total population share (PTA, 2017). This major increase in happened after the introduction of 3G and 4G technology in Pakistan and after the introduction of attractive call, Sms and internet packages by almost all the cellular companies. Pakistan is growing in the field of telecommunication and cellular and emerged as a major contributor to the country’s economy. Telecom and Advertising companies have used it as an opportunity and an important tool of advertisement (Othman, 2012).The use of this mode become popular in previous years as it has reached almost to every area of Pakistan and this draws the attention of the major advertising companies and business to use it as a tool to earn.
The major marketers/advertisers use this as an opportunity and use short messaging service (SMS) to transmit the message of the different companies or organization to their desired audience or customers (Ratnawate, Wan Mohd, Jati, 2014).This medium of transmission become popular as it is cost and time efficient. The other main reason is the direct contact of the desired persons because advertisers have the contact of the major portion of the population in their database and they classify that data according to their classification of people and then on the direction of the companies they transmit that particular message containing short and direct information about a particular subject to the specific class of people or customers. The advertiser on the direction of companies develops a short and precise message in which any particular detail about the offers regarding their product or service is given which ultimately help them to maintain a long-term relationship with their customers (Rehman, 2014).
SMS advertisement becomes the successful tool of advertisement because of its targeted, unmediated, straight and direct messaging to the desired persons (Mehran, Peter, Sunil, 2014).He further explains that the biggest reason behind the advertisement is the severeness of the competition in the market among different brands which provides the option to the customers to choose among the one. This develops the need to highlights the new ways for advertisement and truly Sms advertisement is one of them. Organization doesn’t care about the ethical consideration of any advertisement and follow the general rules not taking a note of what is right and what is wrong and it may shuffle the attitude of the receiver as he may not be ready to receive that particular message or that particular message is irrelevant to him or her may cause irritation to that person regarding that company. Therefore it is important for the organization to take a notice of attitude or the targeted person and any preliminary research before advertisement may create a positive attitude of the customer towards the organization.
Importance of the study in general and for specific in Pakistan
The total no of the mobile user has reached up to 4.93 Billion which is almost 65% of the total world population and Out of 4.93 Billion, only 2.53 Billion uses the smart Phones (Statista, 2018). These figures are forecasted to increase even more in upcoming years shows the reach of mobile phones to the major part of the world population. Advertisers have used it as an opportunity and advertised through SMS. The study is also important in perspective of Pakistan because the SMS marketing has been emerged as a major source of income for the cellular companies and also for networking companies.
Many Government and semi-Government institution particularly Punjab uses mobile advertisement as an important tool to guide and aware people about any specific issue or to receive any kind of feedback from the person who has taken any kind of service from the Government institution like Passport office (secretariat, 2012). This feedback on Mobile SMS between Government and that particular individual clear highlights the importance of mobile advertisement.
The study is important as it focuses the attitude of the customer in response to the SMS advertisement. The study provides the recommendation to the cellular and networking companies to manoeuvre their activities relevant to SMS advertisement and it will also help them to make strategy in accordance with those recommendations may help to achieve the desired result.
The scope of the study
The Study mainly focuses on the responses collected from the People of Sialkot and have examined their attitude towards the SMS advertisement. The respondents was selected from the different age in which majority belongs to the Youth and some part from other age group too.
The paper points out the problem that the advertising agencies generally advertise the products and service without taking it in consideration the other factors that it may be worth full to the receiver or not and without taking into notice the probable attitude of the receiver in this regard. The paper also highlights the problem that advertisers make advertisement through Sms which may be irrelevant to that particular person or it may cause irritation to its receiver (Ratnawate , Wan, 2014).From the study of literature the mixed reaction of the customer in response to the SMS advertisement is revealed that the Attitude of then person varies with the change in different circumstances and many other factors. Therefore this variation in attitude of customer in response to the SMS validates this study.
Uniqueness of the study
The study focuses the effects of SMS advertisement on the attitude of the consumers. Minor research has been done to find the effect of SMS advertisement on the attitude of the customer overall and particularly in Pakistan. Previously the majority of the Researches focuses on the effect of mobile advertisement and its impact on the attitude of the customer doesn’t specifically follow the SMS advertisement and that to done in other countries, not in Pakistan which will not be implemented directly as Pakistan is very different from other countries on the basis of their demographics, cultures differences and lack of advancement in the field of technology in comparison with already developed countries.
· To determine whether Entertainment will affect the consumer attitude towards SMS advertisement.
· To investigate whether irritation will affect the consumer attitude towards SMS advertisement.
· To examine whether informativeness will affect the consumer attitude towards SMS advertisement.
· To determine whether incentives will affect the consumer attitude towards SMS advertisement.
· Does Entertainment influence the consumer attitude towards the SMS advertisement?
· Will Irritation influence the consumer attitude towards the SMS advertisement?
· Will Informativeness influence the consumer attitude towards the SMS advertisement?
· Will incentives influence the consumer attitude towards the SMS advertisement?
H1: There is a significant positive impact of Entertainment on consumer attitude towards the Sms advertisement.
H2: There is a significant positive impact of irritation on consumer attitude towards the SMS advertisement.
H3: There is a significant positive impact of Informativeness on consumer attitude towards the SMS advertisement.
H4: There is a significant positive impact of Incentives on consumer attitude towards the SMS advertisement.
SMS (Short messaging service) is defined as a service through which short message is transmitted to other (must be up to 160 characters)through cell phone or mobile phone. SMS advertising has been emerged as the most popular and vastly used mode of advertisement nowadays because of its low-cost advantage (Dharmadasa, 2014).(Egemen Tekkanata, Murat Topaloglua, 2015)explains that SMS advertising is popular among the advertiser also because of its potential to reach to the mass quantity of persons or users.
large organization have been modifying their marketing activities spending towards effective marketing tools, like SMS advertisement (Amy , Stuart J, 2016).presently advertising has emerged as a medium through which organizations and companies publicize, advertise, promote, inform, persuade, aware people about their products, offerings, and services in a particular or differentiate way (Ian Phau, Min Teah,, 2010).he further explains that in past organization used traditional modes to advertise their product through television ads or through the publication of ads in the newspaper.
Presently SMS marketing has vastly used the form of marketing in which organization or companies use mobile devices through which they forwards the text messages about their product, service or offers (particularly about a sale or new options) to their customers or clients of a company’s. contrary to this previously traditional medium of advertisement were used (Mohammad,Abdulraheem,E. A. Elsayed, 2012).furthermore (Javeed, 2016) explain in his research that some organization uses SMS advertisement just because it provides the clear and particular subject in unambiguous and clear ways and helps them to achieve their target. (Michael, Prof. Yolanda, 2016) explain that other organization uses this medium of exchange as it specifies and particularly targets their audience in the quickest manner at low cost. He further provides that nowadays many non-profit, Government and semi Government institution also uses this to communicate their viewpoint or any specific information to target people on the basis of their demographics.
(Sze Chun, Li Lilly, 2010)explains the ethical aspect of the SMS advertisement as he explains that there the certain advertisement which particular targets male or female product and it’s unethical and unreasonable to advertise that particular product to everyone or to another gender so Sms advertisement helps them to particular transmit that message to their target audience. He further explains that sometimes SMS marketing distort the whole process because of a disrupted and unreliable data source as every person whose data is recorded as a base does not direct uses that mobile device.
Attitude of the customer
(Pittawat, Salinee, 2016)defines the attitude of a person as a way of thinking, behavior, viewpoint, reaction, or frame of mind about anything. (Mirela-Cristina, 2013)explains that attitude acts as the indicator of whether the SMS advertisement had achieved its object or not. He also explains that attitude of a person depends upon the solubility of that particular SMs to that person and does it is beneficial for him or not. (FONG, 2014)also explains the same that those Sms marketing are convenient and objective which are entertaining or create benefits for the receivers. (Hajli, 2012)highlights the role and importance of the consumer behavior and attitude towards SMS advertisement because attitude promotes, drives, and influenced by the Sms advertising and explains that behavior of a receiver can be positive or negative depending upon the message.
(Abednego, Henry , 2015)proposes that audiences perceive SMS advertisement by two ways they may completely ignore it or may find that SMS relevant and valued for themselves.(Selda, 2015)explains in his research that some customers find its comfortable and infect it create a sense of being valued by the organization whenever they received any kinds of SMS advertisement from the company containing offers and offerings. He further provides that it creates the belief of satisfaction among the customers and helps to build long-term and the long-lasting relationship among them.
(Pavlos, Dr. Adam , 2013)found that attitude of a person or receiver depends on the effectiveness of message and effectiveness of message depends on demographics of that target audience. He further provides that attitude of the receiver also depends upon on the number of messages forwarded to that particular receiver and attitude of persons may also vary with the variation in the number of messages.
Relationship between SMS advertisement and attitude of the customers
(Thanh Phan & Mai Tran, 2011)focuses the age that attitude of the receiver or a person large effects by the age of receiver as the attitude of an adult was different to the attitude of the attitude old, senior, or professional person. (Dharmadasa, 2014)also explains that the success of the SMS advertisement depends on the attitude of the consumer towards that particular message.
(Saleem, 2013)highlight the financial aspect of the SMS marketing. He explains that SMS marketing helps organizations to promote their offerings through this cost-effective method and it ultimately helps to boost their profits and helps to improve the attitude of the customer. He further points that the effectiveness of mobile or Sms marketing depends upon the credibility of the source.
(Kumar, 2010)express his views that SMS advertisement effects the behavior of a person and persuade and influence the buying behavior of a person and helps the companies to improve organizational image. (JAMES, LO TECK, LUN, 2014)highlights the importance of the content of the message that if the content of the message promotes positivity it influence the attitude and perception of the receiver too in a positive way and helps to receive the organizational objective.
Figure 1:- source of the model Adapted from (Carr , Brackett, 2001)
The model specified above as Figure 1 is the framework model developed by the Carr and Bracket (Carr , Brackett, 2001)on effect of SMS advertisement on the attitude of the customer in which attitude of the consumers or persons are measured with the SMS advertisement. for this four attributes were taken which are Entertainment, Informativeness, Irritation, and Credibility. The further model also portrays that different demographics also effect the attitude of the which includes Gender, Age & Educational Level.
(QOUSA, 2015)explains that entertainment is one encouraging part of the attitude of the consumer towards the SMS marketing. he further explains that amusing and laughable message helps to improves attitude of the receiver and now SMS marketing has become a prominent medium of transmitting messages of companies towards its customers. Entertainment in SMS marketing. (Dr. Rajyalakshmi, Reddy T, 2011) provides his study that informativeness in the SMS advertisement also effects the attitude of the individual attitude that individual tends to have the positive attitude towards those Sms which are informative for the people.
(Almossawi, 2014)draws the conclusion that people get irritated when they receive a massage frequently or twice. he further explains that level of irritation of a person also depends upon the relevance of that message to that particular receiver and people also get. secondly, individuals also get irritated if they find any Sms which is not beneficial to them. (Sevtap , Erci, Ercan , 2011)The research provided that credibility of the source also emerged as the influential attribute. The credibility of organization or companies which transmit that SMS to their clients or customers is largely affected the attitude of the individual that if the source of the Sms is credible individual tends to have the positive attitude towards it (D. L. R, Rebello , W. J. Brown, 2009). (ALNIAÇIK, 2012)explains that demo graphs like age, gender affects the attitude of the persons as that particular Sms may be relevant to that an adult may be irrelevant to senior or aged person.
In this chapter the information about the Research philosophy, approach, nature and strategy to the readers of the research. Then variables are measured and analyzed by using different kinds of data collection technique.
Positivism philosophy ?
Deductive research approach is used in this study as we move from testing of theory then move towards hypothesis and those hypotheses will find the relationship and effects of SMS advertisement on the attitude of the customers and them confirm (or not ) that theory from the specific data .
The Explanatory research have been used in this study in which Research questions has been developed to examine and investigate the effects of the SMS advertisement on the attitude of the consumer.
The Survey strategy is used in this research to study the consumer attitude towards the SMS advertisement. The reason to use this strategy is the easy access to the collection of the data from the desired location at low cost and in required time. Quantitative research is used in this research strategy as this strategy deal will collection and analysis of numerical data.
Data collection method
The research deal with the collection of the primary data. For this reason Research self administered Questionnaire is adapted (Huq, S. M., Alam, S. S., Nekmahmud, M., Aktar, M. S., & Alam, S. S., 2015) to collect the data from the required respondents. This tool of collection is used as it allow to collect large amount of updated and desires data from the source.