Introduction Studies describe the roles proclaimed upon males

                                                            Introduction

Being the most
controversial, confusable, refutable and highly delicate subject of social
sciences, Gender Studies describe the roles proclaimed upon males and females. Besides
multiple theories like Queer theory, social constructivism and Lesbian Gay
criticism, Gender performativity is also one of the formidable work by Judith Butler
, an American philosopher and gender theorist. In her famous book, Gender Trouble: Feminism and Subversion of
Identity, she has talked about gender performativity. According to her,
gender is performative, means gender roles are constructed with the actions of
the individuals in the society. Her approach focuses on actions, deeds and
performance of the both sexes in the society i.e. male and female. Gender is
corroborated with the reiteration of acts by the agents i.e. male and female. Being
an Indian origin, born in Delhi 1908, Ahmad Ali was not only a novelist but a
far-sighted scholar and social critic. Aligarh is well famous for producing
towering personalities who played pivotal role in shaping the political, social
and ideological framework of the South Asia; among them, Ahmad Ali is also
counted for his insightful writings. After finishing his education, he started
teaching and taught in leading universities of Lucknow and Allabad. He had also
rendered his services at presidency college, Calcutta, as a head of English
department and professor too. He served as a diplomat in the foreign service of
Pakistan. His literary career as a novelist started in 1940, with the
publishment of one of his brilliantly written work, Twilight in Delhi. The
novel delineates the life of a middle class family, including Mir Nehal, his
wife, Begum Nehal, his son, Asghar and other minor characters like, Begum
Waheed, Mir Nehal’s daughter, Babban jan, Mir Nehal’s prostitute, Mushtari Bai,
the lover of Asghar and a prostitute too, Bilqueece, the wife of Asghar and
Bundoo’s sister, Zohra, the younger sister of Bilqueece. The novel transpires
cultural and moral twilight of Indian people. It is of historical significance
because it highlights themes regarding the fall of Mughal Empire and Delhi. The
novel is set in colonial era from 1911 to 1919. The plummet of the family of
Mir Nehal is a symbolical way of the decimation of Indian culture and
traditions. The women in the novel are shown as discriminated gender in the
society, by being enclosed within the Zenana area, fell prey to the patriarchal
society. The deceit of Mir Nehal with his wife by being in relationship with
Babban jan describes how male-dominated societies exploited the women of that
time. Apart from historical predominance, the novel is a social censure upon
Indians who had adopted the western culture and had abandoned their own. Thus,
cultural marginalization becomes a prominent theme with the exploitation of
women of the time.

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!


order now

 

                                                            Literature
review

Mareck, Crawford and Popp (2004) in
their research paper On the Construction of Gender, Sex, and
Sexualities argued that culture plays an important role in forming social
‘gender’ characteristics which depends partly on a person’s biological
make up. For example in the Western European cultures different colors are
assigned to babies on the basis of their sex. Other culture expectations
include the approved actions and allowable emotional expressions. (pp.
192-198). Samoan Fa’fafine, a unique culture recognizes three different
genders: man, woman and effeminate men. All these genders are accepted by the
society. The fa’fafine does not have any problem
rebelling against the conformity of gender roles. This implies that gender
identity issues that exist in other cultures are not caused by the gender
identity itself but by the society that disapprove any other gender. (Vasey
& Barlett, 2007, pp. 481-490)

Stoller
in The Transgender Studies Reader uses the term ‘gender role’ and
‘gender identity’ in order to indicate ones inner and out life, wherein he
contests that the gender role one plays need not necessarily talks about his
gender bending. He maintains that the conscious and unconscious awareness and
knowledge of a person’s subjective sense of belonging to one sex or the other
helps him identify his gender identity though with time it becomes much more
sophisticated as a person may identify himself not only as a male but an effeminate
man or a woman may have tendency to be a masculine man, similarly a man may
fantasies being a woman. (2006, p. 56). Gender Identity Disorder illustrates
another factor unknown at birth plays an important role in the life of the
Child. This is gender identity. Gender identity is the subjective sense a
person has of her or his own gender, regardless of biological sex. (Seil, 2004,
p. 4)

Lev (2004) in his research work has
divided a person sexual identity into four parts: biological sex, gender
identity, sexual orientation and gender role. According to him these different
aspects of a person’s sexual identity works closely with one another in a
sophisticated manner and evolve and incorporate in different setups to produce
a subjective sense of identity for each person. Each facet of a person sexual
identity exists on a spectrum – a person can distinguish himself anywhere on
that spectrum and can exists on more than one place simultaneously. (p. 172).
Bilodeau gave a sample of terms that describe transgender identities:
transsexuals (preoperative, postoperative) transvestites, drag queens, drag
kings, male to (MTV), female to male (ELM), cross dressers, gender benders.
Transgender is an umbrella encompasses all these gender variant identities.
(Biladeaou, 2005)

Simone de Beauvoir, in his research, The Second
Sex, has said: one is
not born, but rather becomes, a woman. The statement delineates the social and behavioral
determinism of gender. Gender is psychologically and socially constructed:
keeping this view, the former is taken from the subject of psychology, while
the later is derived from sociology. Thus, gender becomes the product of two
far-fetched subjects. The researcher rejected the idea that a female who keeps
a female genital is feminine by birth.

Thompson and Geddes concluded that Gender is
biologically detrermined, withholding the perspective that female physiognomy
and its chemical changes and reactions, being processed by distinct biological
systems, identifies the gender. They emphasized the hormonal changes between
male and female bodies. They impugned women by saying that they are sluggish,
conserve and uiinterested in politics because of the anabolic activirties and processes
that occur inside her body. Males are active, agile, diligent, energetic,
enthusiastic and passionate about politic s because of catabolic activities. Through
catabolism, males invest energy; while through anabolism, females preserve
energy. (Evolution of sex, 1889)

Society has set norms and rules for
manifestation of gender. Such rules and regulations are cultural and manipulate
the attitudes and behaviors of males and females. Being a socially built
phenomenon, gender is first set by the parents at childhood, soon after the
birth of a child. If the child is born with sex organs of males, it is given masculine
gender; if it turns out to be female, it is described with feminine traits.  

x

Hi!
I'm Johnny!

Would you like to get a custom essay? How about receiving a customized one?

Check it out