INTRODUCTION were associated with parenting styles in the

                                          INTRODUCTION

Parents play a highly
influential role in their children’s development. Baumrind (2012) described
that pre-school children raised by parents with differing parenting styles
varied in their degree of social competence. Baumrind (2012) explained that
most of the parents adopt different parenting styles.

Changalwa et.al (2012)
revealed that there was a significant relationship between authoritative
parenting style and academic performance of college students. Maphoso and
Dikeledi (2014) expressed that academic achievement is a factor of many
variables. Academic achievement is thus associated with elitist lifestyle as
well as elevated livelihood in the society.

Jeynes (2003) highlighted
that parental involvement affected the academic achievement of minority
students. Nyarko (2011) mentioned that parenting styles in different cultures
may differentially impact children’s academic achievement.

Hong (2012) stated that
both parental practices and parenting styles influence children’s school
achievement. Efobil and Nwokolo (2011) described that authoritative parenting
style is more common among parents than other styles of parenting.

Fakeye (2014) opined that
there was no significant difference in the reading achievement of pupils from
different parenting style.

Kaisa, Hakan and
Jari-erik (2000) mentioned that adolescents’ achievement strategies were
associated with parenting styles in the family. Three hundred and fifty-four
14-year-old adolescents completed the strategy and attribution questionnaire
and a family parenting style inventory.

Turner, Chandler and
Heffer (2009) described that authoritative parenting continues to influence
academic performance of college students, by revealing that both intrinsic
motivation and self-efficacy predicted academic performance.

Huver, Otten, Vries &
Engels (2010) identified that an authoritarian parenting style is under the
dimensions of demandingness which it involve obedience, conformity, parental
controls and the need to respect parental authority.

Zupancic et al (2004)
narrated that authoritarian parent’s exhibit unfriendly attitude with their
children and demand them to follow rules and decision without any argument.
Authoritarian parents restrain children’s self-expression and freedom desires,
and use power-assertive techniques (physical force, love withdrawal, commands,
and threats) to achieve what they want from their children.

Berg (2011) stated that
authoritarian parents oblige compliance and set elevated requirements. They
focus on success aspects and love is conditional with achievement. They are
less nurturing than the other two styles of parenting. Lazar et al (2009)
defined that parental extreme demandingness or control can include strict
regulations, imposition of decisions and parental beliefs, all of these
parental characteristics show use of power in extreme form.

Zupancic et al (2004)
explained that permissive parents follow a tolerant approach for the sake of
children’s socialization. These parents mostly ignore misconduct displayed by
children. These parents does not maintain control over child’s conduct, however
they exhibit a tolerant and supportive attitude.

 Rossman & Rea (2005) narrated
that permissive parents allow their children to experience a high level of
freedom and do not impose rules and regulation to restrain their practices, unless
physical harm is expected. Berg (2011) opined that permissive parents demand
little or almost nothing from their children and maintain a friendly
interrelation. 

Academic performance is
the conjunction of various educational outcomes in students. Performance can
show through various aspects, which differ from institution to institution.
Aspects
of performance can include motivation, study skills, communication skills,
creativity, creative writing, grades, student’s working skills,
self-realization, self-reliance and attitude.

A study illustrated that
the positive parenting produces a healthy and successful student Hoghughi &
Long, 2004). Kordi
& Baharudin, 2010; Alsheikh, Parameswaran & Elhoweris (2010) opined
that authoritarian
parenting is mostly found to influence academic performance negatively. There
are many results in the literature regarding the claim that authoritative
parenting is related to lower grades.

Research investigated that
authoritarian parenting is related to higher levels of school problems (Roche,
Ensminger & Cherlin, 2007). A research study narrated
that a negative correlation between permissive parenting and academic grades in
families where parents have no involvement in their children’s education and
has not taken an initiative for a give-and-take relationship with their
children (Kordi & Baharudin, 2010; Alsheikh et al., 2010).

Grobman, (2003); Seid
& Mikre, (2008) expressed that the authoritative parents control the
activities of the children in a logical and reasonable way. These parent are
demanding and accepting, they appreciate oral discussions, explain the children
the logic behind their plans, and solicits their objections when they disagree.

Seid & Mikre (2008)
narrated that the authoritarian parents maintain the strict control on the
behavior and demand complete obedience from their children.
(Grobman
(2003) defined that the permissive parents are more confirming to the demands
and actions of their children. They themselves give less responsibilities and
tasks to their children.

Coil (2005) showed that
some parents are not concerned with the learning of their children; they just
want their children to have good grades in their exams. These parents place
high importance to the result displayed on the report cards of children.

Zimmerman (2001)
described that academic performance can be defined as a self-regulated
learning, including excellence in sports, arts, culture, behavior, confidence,
and communication skills, and it shows how learners control their emotion,
feelings, and actions in order to academically achievement.

Rodriguez, Donovick, and Crowley
(2009) opined that parenting styles are beneficial in
understanding complex behaviors and attitudes associated with child outcomes.

Morawska (2007) stated
that children’s academic motivation and behavior are directly influenced by
family activities and parents’ behavior, which are seen as the external factor.
For instance, there is a positive outcome for both parents and children when
parents interact in a fun and loving way during children’s homework time.

Phillipson (2007)
revealed that parents are seen to communicate their characteristics or
explanations for their children’s achievement in terms of day-to-day
interactions and behavior with their children. Brown &
Iyengar (2008) defined that the foundation for parenting style and academic
achievement is formed by the belief systems and attitudes in parents and their
children.

Karavalis (2003) narrated
that authoritarian parents fail to explain the reasoning behind these rules. If
asked to explain, the parent might simply reply, “Because I said so.”
These parents have high demands, but are not responsive to their children. In
addition, these parents are usually obedience and status oriented, and they
always expect their orders to be obeyed without explanation.

Steinberg, Eisengart,
& Cauffman (2006) mentioned that Interestingly, adolescents with
authoritative parents reported higher grades in school performance than
adolescents with neglectful parents, and demonstrated stronger school
orientation, school engagement, and bonding with teachers than adolescents with
neglectful parents.

Baumrind (2012) opined
that children with uninvolved parents are likely to have low levels of
functioning in many areas. They tend to do poorly in school and, particularly
as they move into high school, are more likely to exhibit delinquent behavior
and to be depressed .

Parenting styles play a
vital role on the academic performance of students. The
study emphasize on the importance of parenting styles that play a beneficial role
in the education of children in order to ensure success.  

Therefore, the researcher
wished to conduct the research on the topic of examining the parenting styles
on student’s academic performance in high school.

STATEMENT
OF THE PROBLEM:

The study was focus on
examining the effect of parenting styles on the academic performance of high
school students.

SIGNIFICANCE
OF THE STUDY:

Parenting is a family dynamic that often
have a direct impact toward and within a family.There are three types of
parenting styles Authoritative Parenting Styles, Authoritarian Parenting style
and Permissive parenting styles. It is important to look all the parenting
styles and examine its effect on academic performance.

·        
This study may be helpful for parents to
know which parenting style is more appropriate for their children.

 

OBJECTIVE
OF THE STUDY:

The following was the objective of this study:

·        
To examine the effects of parenting styles
on academic performance of high school students.

RESEARCH
QUESTIONS:

Following were the research questions of
this study:

1.     
Is there any statistically significant
effect of father’s’ parenting styles on academic achievement of high school
students?

2.     
is there statistically significant effect
of mother’s parenting styles on academic achievement of high school students?

 

 

 

 

1.
METHODOLOGY:

1.1 NATURE OF
RESEARCH:

The
research was descriptive in nature.

          1.2. RESEARCH DESIGN:

This
was survey study. 

1.3. POPULATION:

The
data was collected from all students of all public and private high schools of
Lahore city.

1.4. SAMPLE:

1.4.1.
SAMPLE SIZE:

Total
representative sample was consist of 150 high class students.

1.4.2.
SAMPLING TECHNIQUE:

Random
sampling technique was used to select students.

1.4.3.
NATURE OF PARTICIPANT:

The
high class students of public and private schools in Lahore city was the
participants of the study.

2.
INSTRUMENTS:

Questionnaire
was developed for students as a tool of research.

DATA
COLLECTION:

The
data of the study was collected personally.

DATA
ANALYSIS:

After
collection of data, it was analyzed by using statistical techniques.