INTRODUCTIONHuman in the business, competition and increasing size
INTRODUCTIONHuman Resource Management(HRM) is relatively recent title for all aspects of managing people in an organisation. A formal beginning of HRM functions in India was made in 1929, when the Royal Commission on Labour was set up by the government of India. Growth in the business, competition and increasing size during sixties and seventies led to the need for attracting and retaining talented people. Hence formulating policies on human resource planning, recruitment and selection, training and development, performance and potential appraisal, internal mobility, compensation management, etc. became a part of the organisations main functions.DEFINITIONS:According to Flippo, “Human resource management( hereinafter : HRM) is the planning, organizing, directing and controlling of the procurement, development , compensation , integration , maintenance , and reproduction of human resources to the end that individual, organizational and societal objectives are accomplished.”According to Leon.C.Megginson, “Human Resources are the total knowledge, skills, creative ability,talents and aptitudes of an organisations work force as well as the value, attitude and believes of the individuals involve.”In simple words Human resources are the people who make up the workforce of an organization, business sector, or economy. “Human capital” is sometimes used synonymously with “human resources”, although human capital typically refers to a more narrow view (i.e., the knowledge the individuals embody and economic growth). Likewise, other terms sometimes used include “manpower”, “talent”, “labour”, “personnel”, or simply “people”.Human resources are the most valued assets of public organisations because of the fact that most of public organisations provide services so that role of employees is essential. The main difference between public and private organisation is that private organisation can use technology to reduce the number of employees whereas public organisation don’t use technology. Supervisors are directly responsible for motivating their subordinates to make a progress of their work. Employees of the public sector receive different wage, welfare, stability, and work security from private sector employees. Thus, employees of these two work sectors may have different expectations from of their work place. Therefore, management of both public and private sectors need to learn how to create incentives for employees in order to ensure security and safety on the job according to the expectations of employeeThis section tells about himan resource management in general.SIGNIFICANCE OF HRM:Human Resource Management becomes significant for business organization due to the following reasons.? Objective :- Human Resource Management helps a company to achieve its objective from time to time by creating a positive attitude among workers. Reducing wastage and making maximum use of resources etc. ? Facilitates professional growth :- Due to proper Human Resource policies employees are trained well and this makes them ready for future promotions. Their talent can be utilized not only in the company in which they are currently working but also in other companies which the employees may join in the future.? Better relations between union and management :- Healthy Human Resource Management practices can help the organization to maintain co-ordinal relationship with the unions. Union members start realizing that the company is also interested in the workers and will not go against them therefore chances of going on strike are greatly reduced.? Helps an individual to work in a team/group :- Effective Human Resource practices teach individuals team work and adjustment. The individuals are now very comfortable while working in team thus team work improves.? Identifies person for the future :- Since employees are constantly trained, they are ready to meet the job requirements. The company is also able to identify potential employees who can be promoted in the future for the top level jobs. Thus one of the advantages of HRM is preparing people for the future.? Allocating the jobs to the right person :- If proper recruitment and selection methods are followed, the company will be able to select the right people for the right job. When this happens the number of people leaving the job will reduce as the will be satisfied with their job leading to decrease in labour turnover. FUNCTIONS:We have already defined HRM. The definition of HRM is based on what managers do. The functions performed by managers are common to all organizations. For the convenience of study, the function performed by the resource management can broadly be classified into two categories, viz.(1) Managerial functions, and(2) Operative functions (see fig. 1.2).These are discussed in turn.(1) Managerial Functions:Planning: Planning is a predetermined course of actions. It is a process of determining the organisational goals and formulation of policies and programmes for achieving them. Thus planning is future oriented concerned with clearly charting out the desired direction of business activities in future. Forecasting is one of the important elements in the planning process. Other functions of managers depend on planning function.Organising: Organising is a process by which the structure and allocation of jobs are determined. Thus organising involves giving each subordinate a specific task establishing departments, delegating authority to subordinates, establishing channels of authority and communication, coordinating the work of subordinates, and so on.Staffing: It is a process by which managers select, train, promote and retire their subordinates This involves deciding what type of people should be hired, recruiting prospective employees, selecting employees, setting performance standard, compensating employees, evaluating performance, counseling employees, training and developing employees.Directing/Leading: Directing is the process of activating group efforts to achieve the desired goals. It includes activities like getting subordinates to get the job done, maintaining morale motivating subordinates etc. for achieving the goals of the organisation.Controlling:It is the process of setting standards for performance, checking to see how actual performance compares with these set standards, and taking corrective actions as needed. (2) Operative Functions:The operative, also called, service functions are those which are relevant to specific department. These functions vary from department to department depending on the nature of the department Viewed from this standpoint, the operative functions of HRM relate to ensuring right people for right jobs at right times. These functions include procurement, development, compensation, and maintenance functions of HRM.A brief description of these follows:Procurement: It involves procuring the right kind of people in appropriate number to be placed in the organisation. It consists of activities such as manpower planning, recruitment, selection placement and induction or orientation of new employees.Development: This function involves activities meant to improve the knowledge, skills aptitudes and values of employees so as to enable them to perform their jobs in a better manner in future. These functions may comprise training to employees, executive training to develop managers, organisation development to strike a better fit between organisational climate/culture and employees.Compensation: Compensation function involves determination of wages and salaries matching with contribution made by employees to organisational goals. In other words, this function ensures equitable and fair remuneration for employees in the organisation. It consists of activities such as job evaluation, wage and salary administration, bonus, incentives, etc.Maintenance: It is concerned with protecting and promoting employees while at work. For this purpose virus benefits such as housing, medical, educational, transport facilities, etc. are provided to the employees. Several social security measures such as provident fund, pension, gratuity, group insurance, etc. are also arranged. MOTIVATIONOne of the essential elements of HRM is motivation. Motivation can be understood as a factor that encourages people to take initiative and interest in the work assigned. It is an art of getting things done willing from others. Motivation is also one’s direction to behaviour, or what causes a person to want to repeat a behaviour. Motivation is the word derived from the word ‘motive’ which means needs, desires, wants or drives within the individuals. motivation represents an unsatisfied need which creates a state of tension or disequilibrium, causing the individual to move in a goal directed pattern towards restoring a state of equilibrium by satisfying the need. It is the process of stimulating people to actions to accomplish the goals. In the work goal context the psychological factors stimulating the people’s behaviour can be -? desire for money? success? recognition? job-satisfaction? team work, etcDEFINITION OF MOTIVATION:According to Maehr and Meyer, “Motivation is a word that is part of the popular culture as few other psychological concepts are.” EMPLOYEE MOTIVATION AND SATISFACTION FACTORS? Factors that Motivate? Achievement; self-expression; meaningful work? Recognition for job well done? Interesting and challenging work? Opportunity for learning and advancement? Responsibility? Competition? Factors that Satisfy? Interpersonal work relationships? Company culture? Status? Pay? Job security and benefits? Supervisor Why do workers work? This is not a new inquiry, but the answer has been the quest of industrial psychologists and management experts for years (Herzberg, 1968). It is generally agreed upon that if an employer can identify the reasons a worker is productive, reports to work on time, and remains with the company, the employer might then be able to apply these motivational factors unilaterally to the entire workforce. Applying this knowledge and fashioning the employment atmosphere to better accommodate the motivational factors of the employee the employer becomes a more desirable employment destination, retaining employees longer, and increasing productivity and service at the same time.employee motivation is studied at length. CONCEPTUALISATION OF WORK MOTIVATIONFig 1.2 THEORIES OF MOTIVATIONSeveral theories have been propounded in attempts to analyse why a person behaves the way he does. Three major theories that have been researched are Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory, McClelland’s Need-Achievement Theory, McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y. These theories are explained as under:HERZBERGS MOTIVATION-HYGIENE THEORY:Motivation Hygiene Theory was proposed by Herzberg and his associates (1959). They used a method called Critical Incident Method to get respondents recall instances of work which led an improvement or a reduction in their job satisfaction. The results showed that people are influenced by two factors. They ate the ‘motivators’ and the ‘hygiene factors’.MOTIVATORS- are needed to motivate an employee into higher performance. Typical motivators include factors like achievement, recognition, advancement, possibility of growth, responsibility and work it-self.HYGIENE FACTORS – are needed to ensure an employee does not become dissatisfied. They do not lead higher levels of motivation, but without them there is dissatisfaction. Typical hygiene factors are salary, interpersonal factors, company policy and administration, working conditions, status and job security.Thus motivators are those factors that are within the individual and the hygiene factors are outside the individual relating to the work environment. The theory suggests that motivators and hygiene factors are independent and absence of one does not mean presence of the other.McCLELLAND’s ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION:McClelland’s (1960) theory of motivation focuses on how important is the need for achievement. Need for achievement is the urge to excel, to accomplish in relation to a set of standards to achieve success. The individuals with high achievement needs are highly motivated by competing and challenging work. Such individuals try to get satisfaction in performing things better. High achievement is directly related to high performance. In addition to showing that the need for achievement is important for the growth of individuals and organizations, it also suggests a programme of developing the achievement motive among them. According to him people can be classified into two groups, one small and the other large. Those falling in the small group are challenged by opportunities and are willing to achieve their goals. People in the large group have less need of achievement and are not so challenged by opportunities.Various studies were conducted on these two groups of people and were scored on the basis of revealed desires for success, competitiveness, and excellence. Those who scored were called as achievers by McClelland. These studies supported the theory that achievement is keeps an employee motivated and that it is important for the organization as well. McGREGOR’s THEORY X AND THEORY Y: McGregor (1960) makes two sets of assumptions underlying Theory X and Theory Y, suggesting two aspects of human behavior at work. The two assumptions are the basic contradictions in human nature. He suggests that managers take managerial actions to motivate their employees that are consistent. Theory X suggests that the role of managers and organizations is to control human behavior to attain organizational goals. On the other hand, theory Y indicates that the goals of the organization could be attained if it provides opportunities for self-actualization. These two assumptions are as below: Assumptions of Theory X:Work is inherently distasteful to most people.Most people are not ambitious, have little desire responsibility, and prefer to be directed.Most people have to be closely controlled and often coerced to achieve organizational goals. Assumption of Theory Y:1. The conditions are work is as natural as play, if favorable.2. Self control is often indispensible in achieving organizational goals.3. People can be self-directed and creative at work if properly motivated.Thus, we can say that Theory X presents a pessimistic view of employees’ nature and behavior at work, while Theory Y presents an optimistic view of the employees’ nature and behavior at work. McGregor views Theory Y to be more valid and reasonable than Theory X.McGregor says that thought its application is slow; it would bring about progress in both personal performance and improvement in the effectiveness of industrial organizations. He has proposed a philosophy or assumption about human nature. REVIEW OF LITERATURE Review of the literature (Conway & Biner, 2002; Coyle- Shapiro, 2002) shows that five dimensions are prevalent in many operationalizations of the job contents. First, financial rewards refer to the provision of just and appropriate rewards. Second, Job Content refers to the provision of right job i.e. job for which one has the best aptitude and attitude, challenging, varied and interesting work. Third, career development opportunities refer to opportunities for promotion and development within the organization or field of work. Fourth, supportive & social atmosphere refers to the congenial and cooperative working environment and, fifth, respect for private life refers to the employer’s respect and understanding for the employee’s personal situation.Money Burgess and Ratto (2003) show that money is not the only motivating factor for public servants because civil servants are motivated by other benefits and incentives than private sector workers. This is also confirmed in a study conducted on public sector workers of Italy (Borzaga & Tortia, 2006).International Journal of Business and Management Invention 2013Ankita Srivastava1 , Dr. Pooja Bhatia2 1 (Research Scholar, School of Management, BBD University, Lucknow, India) 2 (Professor, School of Management, BBD University, Lucknow, India)ABSTRACT: Here the study focuses on motivation as one of the most important factors that may contribute to employee performance has been examined in relation to the nationalized banking sector in India. It will be observed in this study that the most important factors that motivate employees are, respectively, “salary equitable and promotion”, “health benefit extended facilities and other social” and “work environment”. The main objective of this study was to “assess the role of motivation in work performance of employees”. This study on an evaluation of this end uses deductive approach in which qualitative survey was conducted among the students of the Business School is supposed to prospective employees. The survey was designed to get answers on what they consider the best factors that could motivate them as future employees from a list of ten factors of motivation. The analysis of the results showed that job satisfaction is the most matched.A STUDY ON MOTIVATION AND SATISFACTION OF EMPLOYEES IN CORPORATE HOSPITALS IN KOLKATA, INDIA Pratyay Pratim Datta1, Debalina Datta2- 2013Motivation and satisfaction of employees are the two key factors for the proper and adequate productivity of any organization. If these two factors are properly met then the employee can perform well. The present study was carried out to find out the motivational status of employees working in corporate hospitals in Kolkata; to determine the many drivers of motivations and to identify the level of satisfaction of employees. Employee perceptions of job satisfaction: Comparative study on Indian banks; Article · January 2009 The present study examined the job satisfaction level of a public sector and private sector bank employees in India. The sample consisted of 340 bank employees from both sectors. Job Diagnostic Survey by Hackman and Oldham (1975) was used to ascertain the level of job satisfaction. This study used independent samples t-test and qualitative analysis to study the differences in employee attitudes. Results indicated that the means of the public and private banks were significantly different from each other. It was found that private sector bank employees perceive greater satisfaction with pay, social, and growth aspects of job as compared to public sector bank employees. On the other hand, public sector bank employees have expressed greater satisfaction with job security as compared to private sector bank employees. The findings of the study highlight important satisfiers and dissatisfiers present in the job and suggest both the banks to take performance initiatives in the areas where employees have reported reduced satisfaction.International Journal of Business Trends and Technology- volume2Issue3- 2012 A Study of HR Practices and Their Impact on Employees Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment in Pharmaceuticals Industries 1Ruchi Goyal, 2Dr. Madhu Shrivastava 1Research Scholar, Suresh Gyan Vihar University, Jaipur. This paper investigates the influence of human resource practices on the employee job satisfaction and organizational commitment of the pharmaceutical companies in India. The world of human resource management is changing more rapidly than we can imagine. Recognizing these challenges of the organization has created the need for fundamental advances in human resource management. This paper also suggests certain possible solution to the above said problem.