Jefferson, Rivetti, Harnden, Di
Pietrantonj & Demicheli (2008) conducted a research to determine the
efficiency of the influenza vaccine in the prevention of influenza in healthy
children. In 2007, the CDC modified the age requirements of the influenza
vaccine from 6months-23 months to 6months-59months. It was highlighted that the
health consequences of hemophilus influenza were overlooked in young children.
In children under the age of 5 years, the virus can cause severe complications
such as otitis media, pneumonia, bronchitis, and tonsillitis. In children that
have been immunized, they experience less hospitalizations, low prevalence of
influenza infections, and a low mortality rate as compared to the unvaccinated
children who are of the same age.
Portland, Oregon, the prevalence of pertussis among the vaccinated children was
lower than in unvaccinated children. 753 pertussis cases were reported between
2010 and 2012 and out of these cases, 54% were from unvaccinated children while
27% were under vaccinated children. Children who were up-to-date with their
pertussis vaccination had minimal incidences of hospitalization and they did
not experience severe illness as compared to the unvaccinated and the under vaccinated.
However, the health outcomes of the under vaccinated children was better than
that of the unvaccinated but poorer than that of the up-to-date vaccinated
children. Moreover, up-to-date vaccinated children were five times less likely
to get the disease and two and a half times less likely to develop severe
illness. The DPT vaccine shows that it has a very high magnitude of protection
against pertussis especially among infants (Barlow, Reynolds, Cieslak &
is the leading cause of diarrhea and acute gastroenteritis in children under
the age of 5 years. Diarrhea is one of the leading causes of death among
children of this age bracket. In 2006, the United States of America introduced
the rotavirus vaccine and this had a significant role in the dramatic decrease
in the incidences of diarrhea and acute gastroenteritis among children. In the
pre-immunization phase, there were approximately 750,000 episodes of diarrhea
among children and 14,300 hospitalization cases due to severe gastroenteritis.
However, with the introduction of the rotavirus vaccine, there has been a 77%
decline in the cases of diarrhea and acute gastroenteritis and this shows that
children who became vaccine with the rotavirus vaccine are now protected
against gastroenteritis caused by the rotavirus. Diarrhea causes dehydration
which can be fatal, thus, immunizing the children has led to better health
outcomes (Atchison et al., 2015).