Jerry WangConspiracies Hon1/25/2018 The Moon Landing and 9/11 Two of the most memorable moments in American history are the moon landing and 9/11, and while they may be drastically different in the context they represent, their significance in the American story has attracted much speculation and theories. Arguments about these two events walk the thin line between rational discourse and conspiracy theories, as both cases take the lack of concrete contradicting proof as evidence that the theories are real, and such a prevalent view that does not include doubt or skepticism has been present in America since its inception to today. 9/11 casts its shadow on America even today, amongst those who were not born when it occurred or were too young to understand it because it shattered a preconceived notion that Americans were safe from the outside world, an isolationist idea stemming since its inception. Echoing back to Lincoln’s words that “America will never be destroyed from the outside,” people began pointing fingers internally as soon as the second tower went down. Michael Ruppert pointed out that NORAD simply could not have failed, as one plane crashed into the Pentagon near Washington D.C, the focal point of US defense strategies since the cold war. Ruppert’s point has attracted much attention since his statement pointed out several discrepancies in NORAD’s statement, such as fighter jets not intercepting the planes despite having enough time to do so. Much of NORAD’s account was later proven to be wrong, as it was trying to hide how unprepared they were for such an event, by a Congress subcommittee. However, the damage has been done, and once again conspiracy theorists started pointing fingers at government propagated lies, which many believed was designed to push America to declare war on the Middle East. We see a resurgence of anti-semitism, conservatism, and extremists during this period of American history, and paranoia against a minority of the population that resonated with Japanese internment camps in WW2 and the Salem witch trials. The Moon Landing has been the crowning achievement of human ingenuity and a focal point of American patriotism. However, it has been suspected of foul play by several conspiracies groups for several discrepancies found in the footage. Many of the allegedly faked films came from missions that weren’t broadcasted to the general public live, such as the Apollo 12 mission, as people found strange reflections on the astronaut’s helmet that resembled cameras, “C” markings on stones, and the waving flag on a moon without an atmosphere. Many of these theories come after the Vietnam war, after a period of intense government distrust. Many theories rely on the motive of why the US government would choose to fake the landing, which is to exhaust the Soviet economy through the space race. Conspiracy theorists often reach conclusions that don’t conform to what the mainstream may think, but through warping and shaping ?the evidence to fit their theories, they are not doing much different from what everyone all does, all the time. This behavior is part of the reason why conspiracies are hard to disprove and reject: all theories are self-proving because they will only look at evidence that fits their narration.The moment of national triumph was achieved in a race to the stars with the Soviet Union, and the national tragedy happened amidst a rather peaceful era for the United States. While both events were broadcasted live to millions of viewers when they occurred, they have nevertheless incurred several theories about the causes and involvement of other forces behind them. This can be explained due to several factors, such as the heavy-handed government involvement in both events and the paranoia that was associated with or after that period, (i.e. the red scare and post 9/11), that fostered a spirit of confusion and suspicions amongst the American people. Stahl, Jeremy. “‘9/11 Truth’ Movement: How Alex Jones and Michael Ruppert Founded It.”Slate Magazine, 5 Sept. 2011, www.slate.com/articles/news_and_politics/trutherism/2011/09/where_did_911_conspiracies_come_from.html.