Let and physical attractiveness. Those factors also include

Let us state this clear that the
main aim behind human survival is propagation of DNA, which is done through
both reproducing and enhancing fitness. Since we already know that reproduction
depends on sex and mates; from this point on arises our first problem. When an
individual chooses his mate, multiple factors influence his/her preferences.
For example, men tend to prefer young women with a low waist-to-hip ratio and they
are known to be more interested in short-term casual sex compared to women. Mate
values significantly differ across genders where man’s mate value depends mainly
on his wealth, status, and power. In contrast, a woman’s mate value is
influenced by her youth, beauty, and physical attractiveness. Those factors
also include facial symmetry, facial averageness, facial expression of sex
hormone levels, and male upper-body musculature, function as fitness
indicators. To simply state it, average faces are attractive in males, but females
with faces that emphasize certain areas like large eyes, small noses, and full
lips are considered to be more attractive. Males who exhibit testosterone-induced
features such as high cheekbones, strong jaws, strong chins, and large noses are
considered to be more attractive compared to other males who don’t have these features.
Before we proceed into analyzing each of the factors, we need to keep in mind
that the indicators of mate choice also tend to demonstrate the presence of genetic
basis. Therefore, we could assume that genetic quality can be the key criteria
in human mate choice.

 

Fitness indicators like health and
genetic quality withstands the individual’s expected Darwinian fitness. In this
factor, it requires individual to choose sexual partners with high fitness in
order to ensure higher chances of transmitting the best genes to their off
springs. Additionally, certain vulnerable traits aim to amplify the apparent
variance in phenotypic quality across individuals. Visible individual
differences and traits work to amplify the power of sexual selection and allow
it to evolve better quality and fitness in mate choice. Indicators of Genetic
Quality Fitness indicators include both bodily traits and behavioral traits which
often play a big role in advertising good genes. What is meant by ‘Good gene’?
They are those genes that show a genotype with few expressed deleterious
mutation, which might result in lowering fitness. Sexual selection that is
based in genetic quality indicators play a major role in developing the
persistence of long-lived species to certain mutations. The spread of harmful
mutations could significantly limit the evolution of sexual reproduction. In
most cultures “goodness and beauty are the same”: our sense of beauty has reshaped
our perception through evolution where we are now aware of what is costly
versus cheap, fit versus unfit, etc. Referring back to mate choices, indicators
include revealing age, health, nutritional status, size, strength, aggressive
dominance, social status, disease resistance, or overall vigor. These indicators,
however, emphasize resources and health attributing to raising offspring, but sometime
ignore the importance of genetic quality. Females shape tend to select those
males with good genes, and ignore those with the bad genes as those with good
genes show strong “developmental competence”- resistance to disease,
injury, and harmful mutations that cause “fluctuating asymmetry”
during development.

 Facial Signals Facial musculature revolves
around the three divisions of attractive faces: bilateral symmetry, average,
and secondary sexual characters. Facial symmetry presents a strong marker of good
health. Those who show less symmetrical faces tend to withstand stress more
firmly. This explains humans’ preferences to mate people with symmetrical
facial features. Asymmetric facial features are considered to be both less
healthy and less attractive. Social judgments that are made from the faces is
what underlie the term attractiveness. We can distinguish those differences the
more we get familiarized with those terms. Facial asymmetry (FA) shows genetic
disturbances and increases with exposure to environmental perturbations during
development whereas bilateral symmetry is related with heterozygosis and
resistance to infection. This explains how men with asymmetric faces and body
features tend to have higher basal metabolic rates, lower IQs, and fewer sexual
partners compared to their more symmetric peers. The relationship is also known
as the “good genes” approach, which states that the attractive
features can contribute in explaining an individual’s freedom from parasites
and infections.

Intelligence Beauty is another indicator
of good health. One known fact is that physically attractive people are much healthier
compared to less attractive people. In general, it is quite obvious that man
perceives attractive others as more intelligent, good, and competent. Men show
tendencies to be more attracted towards young and attractive women whereas
women tend to prefer rich and powerful men. To explain it more, infants of
12-month old play longer with facially attractive dolls compared with dolls that
appears scary, ugly or simple unattractive. Here we can assume that the standard
of beauty might therefore be innate and culturally universal. Skin tone and
luminosity can be considered as marks that demonstrate a person’s health, reproductive
capability and so they are though thought to be major signal for mate selection
and attractiveness. Another example that could be set is that women with
hourglass figure are in fact more fertile due to high female hormone level. One
famous statement which is kind of considered universally true is “Beauty blinds
people”. Size of female bodies demonstrates several fitness enhancing functions
including insulation, storage of calories and fertility regulation. When it
comes to choosing mates, men with scarce resources usually prefer heavier women
while men with abundant resources seem to prefer thinner women. Resource
availability can be considered as a lucid force in determining mate preferences.

Waist -to- Hip Ratio Male
preference is considered as 0 .70.The WHR of healthy, pre-menopausal women in industrial
societies typically ranges from .67 to .80. Men find women with low WHRs the
most attractive where they tended to prefer women with a .70 WHR compared to
women with .80, who in turn is more attractive than women with .90. However, we
need to remember that this wasn’t a stable preference between all cultures
where every culture tested tended to have their own preferences. Wetsman and
Marlowe examined male WHR preferences in a foraging Hadza society and there
they found that Hadza strongly preferred heavier women and they did not prefer
women with WHR of either a .70 or .9 0. WHR and BMI have played a significant
case when women wanted to get pregnant where the first live birth occurs at a
later age in women with lower WHR. Men are attracted to low waist-to-hip ratios
in females, and a low female waist-to-hip ratio correlate with youth,
fertility, and health

                Other than what has been mentioned,
there are other criteria of mate choices. For example, women, for marriage, tend
to prefer a man with a wide smile, small eyes, a big nose, symmetric body
shape, wider shoulders, prominent cheek bone. and a large jaw. The features in
sum indicate a strong testosterone level in men.  Men with higher testosterone have more
masculine – structured faces. Features including distance from eyes to chin and
size of lips are some examples that show female attractiveness. Women who have higher
estrogen levels have large breasts, narrow waists, and high pitched voices. Women
prefer. Both women and men who are aiming to have a long- term relationship want
intelligent, kind, understanding, dependable and healthy mates. Women tend to
prefer men with who they feel physically safe and protective with them. Many
women prefer men with who they can easily develop an intimate and emotionally
satisfying relationship (Buss, 1994).