Louken of the Peloponnese and Athens including the

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Louken Salvan Pluviose II

Excelsior College

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Abstract

Thucydides
(460-400 B.C) is a citizen of the Athenian which occupies a unique place among
historians, it is important because it is the first to get rid of the mythical
story to attach only to the fact and reality, more, it tells a war it has
lived, contemporary therefore of the facts within its single work, the
Peloponnesian War. Because the latter has participated, related to a noble
family of Athens, we gave him a command, this was a failure to Amphipolis in
424 B.C, earned him to be exiled, he took advantage of its time to acquire his
task of historian and be able to travel in the two camps to collect more
information, which leaves us to think that it is a source that we will qualify
of relatively reliable for this time. This confrontation which opposed from 431
to 404 before J.-C, the two major Greek cities then at their peak: Sparta who
had the direction of the League of the Peloponnese and Athens including the Empire
was born in the aftermath of the Wars médiques, had not ceased to grow and
enjoyed under the impetus of Pericles (which was a strategist, speaker and man
of Athenian state during the golden age of this cited) of a radiating prestige
which we still have the testimony today the monuments of the Acropolis.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Introduction

The
Vth century before our era, the Athenians to put in place a political system to
share which leaves a greater share of shares to the inhabitants of the city.
The power now belongs to the freemen of
the city, which are called the citizens. Athens is a case particular policy
which deserves to examine the way in which a city comes to manage when the
people is to the commands?

 

Recounted
in the Peloponnesian War of the Athenian historian Thucydides, this speech of
Pericles is a funeral oration in honor of the soldiers Athenians died during
the first year of the Peloponnesian War.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The
proposed document is an excerpt from the speech delivered by Pericles, famous
Athenian magistrate, on the occasion of the funeral of citizens died during the
first year of the Peloponnesian War. This allows indication to date the speech
of 430 av. J.-C., the war has started in
431 av. J.-C. In this speech which is akin to a kind of propaganda in favor of
the Athenian democracy, Pericles puts forward the superiority of the political
system of his city. This speech is resumed by the historian Thucydides in his history
of the Peloponnesian War but we do not know to what extent the proposed text
corresponds exactly to that of Pericles.

 

Pericles,
in addressing the citizens Athenians who listen, defines what is the special
feature of the political system an Athenian. In this excerpt, he insists in particular on the fact that it is a system
in which all citizens are equal and where there is, therefore, a real equality.
This equality is based on the fact that the wealth plays no role in the
political life of Athens (” it is not shameful to confess his
poverty”;

 

“The
craftsmen can hear enough of the policy issues”). By the principle of the
draw

at
the important functions such as to sit on the boule or to the Héliée, the
“constitution” Athenian

applies
this fundamental belief in the capacity of all citizens to render service to
their city.

 

Pericles
even specifies: “We consider the man who does not participate as
unnecessary”. Political participation is therefore experienced by the
Athenians as an absolute duty of all citizens.

The
consequence of this belief in the equality of all citizens is the existence in
Athens a

a democratic regime that is the special feature of the
“constitution” policy of the city that Pericles evokes as the
beginning of his speech. It clarifies a little further on the exact form of
this democracy in stating ” It is by ourselves that we decide the
business”. He made reference here to the periodic meetings of the
Ecclesia, the assembly of citizens, who vote the laws and may also decide to ostracize the citizens putting at risk the
city. Since these are the citizens who decide themselves of laws, Athens is,
therefore, a direct democracy. In this democracy, everyone can take part in the
debates before deciding. As well, when Pericles considers that “the word
is not harmful to the action”, he alluded to the fact that the citizens
Athenians frequently speak of the affairs of the cited, in particular on the
Agora, the Main Square of Athens.

 

The
purpose of Pericles is to put in before the singularity of Athens at the time
where the city is at war; it the fact as soon as the first sentence in
proclaiming that the “Political Constitution”, that is to say,
democracy, “has nothing to envy to the laws that govern our
neighbors”. But if this first sentence seems to place democracy at the
same level that the regimes of other cities, Pericles goes further by the
following statement, “We give the
example” and that Athens is the “school of Greece”. There is,
therefore, a feeling of superiority of Pericles, and of the Athenians, in
political matters. The political system an Athenian is actually “far to
imitate the other” since democracy is born in Athens at the end of the
Vith century before J.-C. and it is this that

allows
Pericles of claim “we distinguish ourselves”. This superiority, this
willingness to serve as an example is translated at the time of the speech by
the fact that Athens has imposed democracy in the cities which are its allies in the League of Delos. In contrast, Athens has
relations very difficult with the cities in which reigns an oligarchic system with the domination of the
richest part of the citizens.

 

 

The
feeling of superiority of Athens on the other cities is not only policy. In
extolling his

city,
Pericles asserts that its citizens have “the taste of the beautiful”
and “The taste of Studies”; this is
installing the idea of a cultural superiority and artistic work of
Athens on the rest of the Greek world. These words, intended to glorify the
city, however, relies on an actual basis. It is in Athens that hasThe
mechanisms of democracy are simple and are structured on the basis of citizens
who are actively involved and to ensure their involvement in the political life
of the city, the citizens are paid. But the Athenian democracy is also based on
a strong propaganda which helps to ensure the coercion of citizens Athenians.

 

Athens
is the City which wants to be the model of democracy. However, despite the
writings of artists, it is easy to realize that the Athenian democracy
precludes a majority of the inhabitants of the city. The Government and
therefore the decision making for the future of the city is not done in a manner as democratic as what we would like to
believe. The Athenian society is very unequal
and excludes in its breast: women, métèques, and
slaves considered as human cattle. The political experience of Athens is an
opening in this old world but, if it seems, at first sight, it democratic is no
less ségrégative.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References:

 

Ancient
History Sourcebook: Thucydides (c.460/455-c.399 BCE): Pericles’ Funeral Oration
from the Peloponnesian War (Book 2.34-46). (n.d.). Retrieved January 28, 2018,
from https://sourcebooks.fordham.edu/halsall/ancient/pericles-funeralspeech.asp

 

Rhetorical
Methods in Pericles’ Funeral Oration:.
(n.d.). Retrieved January 28, 2018, from
http://bryanberg.net/pericles_funeral_oration.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Louken Salvan Pluviose II

Excelsior College

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Abstract

Thucydides
(460-400 B.C) is a citizen of the Athenian which occupies a unique place among
historians, it is important because it is the first to get rid of the mythical
story to attach only to the fact and reality, more, it tells a war it has
lived, contemporary therefore of the facts within its single work, the
Peloponnesian War. Because the latter has participated, related to a noble
family of Athens, we gave him a command, this was a failure to Amphipolis in
424 B.C, earned him to be exiled, he took advantage of its time to acquire his
task of historian and be able to travel in the two camps to collect more
information, which leaves us to think that it is a source that we will qualify
of relatively reliable for this time. This confrontation which opposed from 431
to 404 before J.-C, the two major Greek cities then at their peak: Sparta who
had the direction of the League of the Peloponnese and Athens including the Empire
was born in the aftermath of the Wars médiques, had not ceased to grow and
enjoyed under the impetus of Pericles (which was a strategist, speaker and man
of Athenian state during the golden age of this cited) of a radiating prestige
which we still have the testimony today the monuments of the Acropolis.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Introduction

The
Vth century before our era, the Athenians to put in place a political system to
share which leaves a greater share of shares to the inhabitants of the city.
The power now belongs to the freemen of
the city, which are called the citizens. Athens is a case particular policy
which deserves to examine the way in which a city comes to manage when the
people is to the commands?

 

Recounted
in the Peloponnesian War of the Athenian historian Thucydides, this speech of
Pericles is a funeral oration in honor of the soldiers Athenians died during
the first year of the Peloponnesian War.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The
proposed document is an excerpt from the speech delivered by Pericles, famous
Athenian magistrate, on the occasion of the funeral of citizens died during the
first year of the Peloponnesian War. This allows indication to date the speech
of 430 av. J.-C., the war has started in
431 av. J.-C. In this speech which is akin to a kind of propaganda in favor of
the Athenian democracy, Pericles puts forward the superiority of the political
system of his city. This speech is resumed by the historian Thucydides in his history
of the Peloponnesian War but we do not know to what extent the proposed text
corresponds exactly to that of Pericles.

 

Pericles,
in addressing the citizens Athenians who listen, defines what is the special
feature of the political system an Athenian. In this excerpt, he insists in particular on the fact that it is a system
in which all citizens are equal and where there is, therefore, a real equality.
This equality is based on the fact that the wealth plays no role in the
political life of Athens (” it is not shameful to confess his
poverty”;

 

“The
craftsmen can hear enough of the policy issues”). By the principle of the
draw

at
the important functions such as to sit on the boule or to the Héliée, the
“constitution” Athenian

applies
this fundamental belief in the capacity of all citizens to render service to
their city.

 

Pericles
even specifies: “We consider the man who does not participate as
unnecessary”. Political participation is therefore experienced by the
Athenians as an absolute duty of all citizens.

The
consequence of this belief in the equality of all citizens is the existence in
Athens a

a democratic regime that is the special feature of the
“constitution” policy of the city that Pericles evokes as the
beginning of his speech. It clarifies a little further on the exact form of
this democracy in stating ” It is by ourselves that we decide the
business”. He made reference here to the periodic meetings of the
Ecclesia, the assembly of citizens, who vote the laws and may also decide to ostracize the citizens putting at risk the
city. Since these are the citizens who decide themselves of laws, Athens is,
therefore, a direct democracy. In this democracy, everyone can take part in the
debates before deciding. As well, when Pericles considers that “the word
is not harmful to the action”, he alluded to the fact that the citizens
Athenians frequently speak of the affairs of the cited, in particular on the
Agora, the Main Square of Athens.

 

The
purpose of Pericles is to put in before the singularity of Athens at the time
where the city is at war; it the fact as soon as the first sentence in
proclaiming that the “Political Constitution”, that is to say,
democracy, “has nothing to envy to the laws that govern our
neighbors”. But if this first sentence seems to place democracy at the
same level that the regimes of other cities, Pericles goes further by the
following statement, “We give the
example” and that Athens is the “school of Greece”. There is,
therefore, a feeling of superiority of Pericles, and of the Athenians, in
political matters. The political system an Athenian is actually “far to
imitate the other” since democracy is born in Athens at the end of the
Vith century before J.-C. and it is this that

allows
Pericles of claim “we distinguish ourselves”. This superiority, this
willingness to serve as an example is translated at the time of the speech by
the fact that Athens has imposed democracy in the cities which are its allies in the League of Delos. In contrast, Athens has
relations very difficult with the cities in which reigns an oligarchic system with the domination of the
richest part of the citizens.

 

 

The
feeling of superiority of Athens on the other cities is not only policy. In
extolling his

city,
Pericles asserts that its citizens have “the taste of the beautiful”
and “The taste of Studies”; this is
installing the idea of a cultural superiority and artistic work of
Athens on the rest of the Greek world. These words, intended to glorify the
city, however, relies on an actual basis. It is in Athens that hasThe
mechanisms of democracy are simple and are structured on the basis of citizens
who are actively involved and to ensure their involvement in the political life
of the city, the citizens are paid. But the Athenian democracy is also based on
a strong propaganda which helps to ensure the coercion of citizens Athenians.

 

Athens
is the City which wants to be the model of democracy. However, despite the
writings of artists, it is easy to realize that the Athenian democracy
precludes a majority of the inhabitants of the city. The Government and
therefore the decision making for the future of the city is not done in a manner as democratic as what we would like to
believe. The Athenian society is very unequal
and excludes in its breast: women, métèques, and
slaves considered as human cattle. The political experience of Athens is an
opening in this old world but, if it seems, at first sight, it democratic is no
less ségrégative.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References:

 

Ancient
History Sourcebook: Thucydides (c.460/455-c.399 BCE): Pericles’ Funeral Oration
from the Peloponnesian War (Book 2.34-46). (n.d.). Retrieved January 28, 2018,
from https://sourcebooks.fordham.edu/halsall/ancient/pericles-funeralspeech.asp

 

Rhetorical
Methods in Pericles’ Funeral Oration:.
(n.d.). Retrieved January 28, 2018, from
http://bryanberg.net/pericles_funeral_oration.html

 

 

 

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