Microbial diseases continued to be major threats to the world
regardless of hard work and advancement in developing modern medicine. This is due
to bacteria possess the genetic ability to acquire and transmit resistance
against currently available antibacterial since there are frequent reports on
the isolation of bacteria that are known to be sensitive to routinely used
drugs and became multi-resistant to other medications available on the market (Nascimento
et al., 2000).
The impact of bacterial diseases is especially important in
developing countries such as Ethiopia where there is inadequate access to
modern drugs and prices are mostly unaffordable when the latter are available.
Extensive use of antibiotics often resulted in the development of resistant
strains and these create a problem in the management of infectious diseases.
Furthermore, side effects associated with antibiotics are often fewer when
using medicinal plants (Nega and
plants have some prize over antibiotics such that there is superior patient
tolerance, relatively less costly, agreement due to a long history of use and
are renewable in nature (Vermani and Garg, 2002). Currently, the
ever-increasing risk from drug-resistant bacteria calls for a universal effort
to search for novel solutions that can also be based on the natural products from
plants that are selected on the basis of documented ethnomedicinal use (Lulekal
et al., 2014). Medicine from herbs is
readily obtained in our widely varied vegetation, inexpensive and all plant
parts carry the potential for introducing new templates into modern medicine (Jackie, et al., 2016). Natural plant
sources are usually the raw material for the most pharmaceutical company (Amin et
macrostachyus is a deciduous tree belonging to the family
Euphorbiaceae. The leaves are large
and green, turning to orange before falling. It is also characterized by creamy
to yellow-white colored flowers with green (when young) to grey (at maturity)
fruits. C. macrostachyus is commonly named as ‘Bisana’ in Amharic, Ethiopia
and it is an important medicinal plant in East
Africa including Ethiopia (Abraham et al.,
2016). It is traditionally used for the treatment of wound (Giday et al., 2009; Teklehaymanot and Giday, 2007; Abraham et al., 2016)
malaria, rabies, and gonorrhea (Giday et
al., 2007), Tineaversi color, diarrhea, hepatitis, jaundice, and
scabies (Teklehaymanot and Giday, 2007).
In case of medicinal value, C. macrostachyus has many uses. Leaf extract is applied against the itchy scalp. A decoction of the
leafy twigs mixed with Justicia
schimperiana is taken to treat jaundice and smallpox. The traditional preparation can be taken with pepper, butter,
and milk. The mixture of the leafy branches and roots is used as a mouthwash to
treat a toothache. The leaves or young shoots of C. macrostachyus are eaten to treat fever and oedema
and mashed leaves are used for hemorrhoids. C. macrostachyus stem bark maceration is drunk as an
abortifacient and uterotonic, to expel a retained placenta. In addition to this
stem bark is chewed to treat a toothache (PROTA4U,
hydroalcoholic C. macrostachyus stem
bark extracts have been tested against a clinical strain of Neisseria gonorrhoeae (Mesfin, 2007)
with the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 125–250 mg/ml. There are both negative and positive
reports on the antibacterial activity of methanol extracts from C. macrostachyus leaves (wagate et al., 2010; Matu and Van, 2003; Jackie
et al., 2016). Contrasting results
could be attributed to the locality of plant species, parts used, time of
collection, storage conditions, and methods of analysis (Jackie et al., 2016; Suffredini et al., 2006). Even though the majority
of the Ethiopian population uses C.
macrostachyus to treat different diseases traditionally, only a single
study was conducted on the the antibacterial effect of C. macrostachyus leaf but there is no study conducted on the other
parts of this plant. Therefore, the
objective of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of chloroform,
methanol and water extracts from C.
macrostachyus stem bark against both clinical and standard strains of E. coli and S. aureus.