Migration that the lives of these Syrians were

Migration can be defined as the temporary
or permanent movement of people from one geographical area to the other. This
movement is influenced by factors such as natural disasters, conflict,
education, economic hardship among others. This paper tries to answer the
question: “Is migration an asset to, or a
burden for sending states /countries of origin and receiving states / countries
of destination?” by discussing the advantages and disadvantages of
migration on both the sending and receiving countries.

The advantages of migration to countries
of origin include providing an avenue for the protection of the lives of the
vulnerable during conflicts and natural disasters. When there is a conflict in one country, the vulnerable can
migrate to their neighboring countries free from danger. Over the past three
decades, the world has seen series of conflicts and natural disasters. According
to the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (2017), a total of about
5.3 million Syrians had to flee their country because of conflict to other
neighboring countries. This ensured that the lives of these Syrians were
protected even though there was conflict in their country of origin. In
addition, migration makes it possible for people travel to other countries to
acquire knowledge and develop their skills. Some countries are known to be
specialized in certain fields of studies. Countries that are not specialized in
these fields are able to benefit from the specialized nations through
migration. Annually, students are sent from one country to the other to acquire
knowledge and skills. These students mostly return to their countries of origin
after study to contribute to the development of their nation. Some 250 students
from Ghana were sent to Cube to study medical science through an agreement
between the governments of Ghana and Cuba (GhanaWeb, 2012). These potential medical practitioners
are expected to return to their country of origin to help improve upon the health
sector in the country through the skills they acquire.

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On the other hand, migration serves as a
burden to the countries of origin when it results in brain drain. Brain drain is
a situation whereby highly skilled labor force leave their country of origin to
other countries for better working conditions. This results in a shortage of
skilled labor in the sending country. When a country loses its highly skilled labor
force, it results in a decline in the development of that country. This is
because countries rely heavily on its skilled labor for development. Africa is
estimated to lose about 20,000 highly skilled personnel annually to developed
countries (Sriskandarajah, 2005). The countries of
origin also suffer losses in terms of investment when the countries of origin
paid for the training of these highly skilled professionals.  Furthermore, it results in a loss in revenue
in the form of taxation. Taxes are a major source of revenue in running the
affairs of every state. However, when these highly skilled personnel migrate,
they deny their countries of origin of these taxes and end up paying taxes to
foreign governments. These migrants therefore contribute to the development of
their receiving countries at the expense of their home countries through
taxation.

Migration serves as an asset to the receiving
countries by creating an avenue for the supply of labor. When more people
migrate into a country, they increase the supply of labor in that country. This
extra labor may be highly skilled whose contributions will have a positive
impact on the receiving country. An increase in the total supply of labor in
the receiving country has the potential of reducing the cost of labor given the
law of demand and supply. A reduction in the cost of labor will mean firms in
the receiving countries can cut down on their cost of labor which forms a
greater part of their cost elements thereby increasing profitability. Furthermore,
it provides an avenue for the receiving state to expand its sources of revenue
through taxation. Taxation is a major source of revenue in undertaking
developmental projects by various governments. Gainfully employed migrants pay
taxes to governments of their receiving countries which helps in running the
affairs of the receiving country. Refugees in the United States are estimated
to pay over $21000 more in taxes than the benefits they receive (Evans & Fitzgerald, 2017). This therefore
means the contributions of refugees to the US economy cannot be neglected.

However, migration can serve as a burden
to the receiving country through the increase in pressure on social amenities.
When there is an influx of migrants into a country, it increases the number of
people using its limited social amenities such as schools, hospitals, roads and
portable drinking water available to the country. The pressure results in a
rapid deterioration of these facilities and a subsequent effect of worsening
the living conditions of the citizenry. Syria’s decision to provide a haven for
1.7 million Iraqi refugees in 2007 resulted in an increase in the prices of
water, electricity and rent which increased the cost of living in Syria (Landry, 2013).  In addition, migration can lead to instability
in the receiving country. When citizens of the receiving country perceive migrants
as a treat to their livelihood, it may result in conflict. This is because
resources in most receiving countries are limited in terms of fewer employment
avenues among others. As a result, the citizenry may not be willing to share
their limited source of livelihood with foreigners. Foreign nationals in South
Africa were attacked by South Africans on the premise that these foreign
nationals were taking away their source of livelihood (Misago, 2017). To conclude, migration can be an asset
and a burden to both the sending and receiving countries. 

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