Modern for online implementation. There is always

Modern engineering systems are complex in nature. This complexity  arises from the recent  technological  advancements  that  involve  interaction  of  various  technical domains  for  the  proper  functionality  of  these  systems.  Due  to  their  inherent complexity,  these  systems  are  more  prone  to  fault  and  thus  have  reliability  issues. Fault diagnosis is an efficient way to address this problem and to meet the reliability requirement.  There  is  an  increasing  demand  for  monitoring  of  these  engineering systems  to  ensure  their  fault-free,  reliable  and  safe  operation.  However,  due  to  the increased  complexity  of  modern  engineering  systems,  corresponding  fault  diagnosis algorithms  are  also  becoming  more  complex  and  computationally  expensive  for online  implementation.  There  is  always  a  quest  for developing  simple,  reliable, efficient  and  easy-to-implement  fault  diagnosis  techniques  for  these  complex engineering systems. One approach to achieve this task is to partition the system into simpler  interacting  subsystems  and  design  the  required  fault  diagnosis  scheme  for these  simpler  subsystems.  However,  such  partitioning  of  a  large  complex  system  is not an easy task. This can be facilitated by using hybrid modeling of the system that can  be  used  to  represent  these  complex  engineering systems  in  simpler  subsystems working collectively to complete a required job. Many engineering systems that work by  the  interaction  of  multiple  subsystems  can  more easily  be  modeled  as  hybrid systems,  with  simpler  subsystem  models  that  interact  with  each  other  periodically  at discrete  events  to  generate  the  output.  The  discrete  states  in  the  hybrid  systems correspond to the system modes and in each mode system dynamics are governed by the  corresponding  continuous  dynamics.  In  hybrid  systems,  the  states  evolve  by switching  between  various  operating  modes  based  on system  states,  time  or  some external event. Representation  of  real-world  complex  systems  by  hybrid  models  simplifies  analysis and  controller  design  process  for  these  systems  by considering  simpler  subsystems instead of a large complex system. Furthermore, system performance can be improved to  a  significant  extent  by  designing  high  performance  control  systems  by  switching 

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