Multiple to find out if cognitive impairments can

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating
auto-immune disease of the central nervous system (CNS). In MS the immune system
attacks parts of the CNS which will lead to neurological symptoms, depending on
the location of the lesions. The onset of MS is typically characterised by
temporal sensory deficits and tingling sensations or motor deficits. This
however will recover completely in the earlier stages of the disease; Relapsing
remitting MS. Over time, some symptoms will not recover and the disease will
become progressive. Aside from the sensory and motor deficits, patients might
also experience visual impairments, problems with movement, balance,
coordination, fatigue, incontinence, erectile dysfunction, depression, and
cognitive impairment (CI).

For most of these symptoms, there
are treatment options available in the form of physical, pharmacological
therapy or walking aids etc. However, there are no treatment options available for
patients suffering from cognitive impairmentsVGR1 .1
This affects 43-70% of the 2.5 million patients suffering from MS worldwide.23 The
cognitive impairments can occur from the earliest stage of the disease, and can
affect different aspects of the cognitive functions. This includes memory
loss,  in both short-term and long-term
memory, attention, information processing, etc. CI in these area’s has a
negative effect on the daily lives of patients with MS, ranging from being
unable to do their jobs, running a household, till participating in social
activities and raising their children. Being unable to participate in the
mentioned activities can lead to a decreased quality of life of the patient.
Cognitive impairment can be a significant problem in the lives of patients with
multiple sclerosis, and since there is no pharmacological treatment available,
this systematic review will try to find out if cognitive impairments can
improve under the influence of physical activity. This will be done by answering
the following research question: Will aerobic or strength training have a
positive effect on the cognitive functions in patients with multiple sclerosis?
The hypothesis is that aerobic exercise and strength training will have a
beneficial effect on the cognitive functions in MS patients.VGR2 

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The method that will be used for
this systematic review is a systematic search in the databases of Pubmed,
Embase, and Cochrane. The following search terms will be used to find articles
suitable for this systematic review: Multiple Sclerosis, Cognitive Function,
Exercise (Aerobe training), Resistance TrainingVGR3 . Since most studies focus on either aerobic exercise or strength
training, these search terms will be added with an OR instead of AND, to not limit
ourselves to only one of optionsVGR4 . The search will make use of MeSH terms and tiab to gather a wide selection
of articles. Next, the selection of articles will be made based on the title
and abstract. This will be done to exclude any articles irrelevant to this
review. Moreover, a final selection will be done by examining the articles and
determining whether they should be included based on their methods used. The
findings of all the relevant articles will be analysed to reach a conclusion
and answer the research question.

 

 

1 Niccolai
C, Goretti B, Amato MP. Disease modifying treatments and symptomatic drugs for
cognitive impairment in multiple sclerosis: where do we stand?. Multiple
Sclerosis and Demyelinating Disorders. 2017 Jun 5;2(1):8.

2 Browne
P, Chandraratna D, Angood C, Tremlett H, Baker C, Taylor BV, Thompson AJ. Atlas
of Multiple Sclerosis 2013: A growing global problem with widespread inequity.
Neurology. 2014 Sep 9;83(11):1022-4.

3 Chiaravalloti
ND, DeLuca J. Cognitive impairment in multiple sclerosis. The Lancet Neurology.
2008 Dec 31;7(12):1139-51.

 

 VGR1Dat
is niet helemaal waar: strategietraining heeft wel effecten. Het vebeteren van
de stoornis zelf is lastiger en vertaalt zich niet naar verbeteringen in het
dagelijks functioneren.

 VGR2Gebruik
voor je referenties een programma dat hiervoor bedoeld is en plaats ze
achteraan onder het kopje references.

 VGR3Kijk
bij het uitwerken als mesh termen of je niet nog meer synoniemen moet meenemen.
Verder nog toevoegen of je restricties qua taal en/of  periode hanteert.

 VGR4Prima!Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating
auto-immune disease of the central nervous system (CNS). In MS the immune system
attacks parts of the CNS which will lead to neurological symptoms, depending on
the location of the lesions. The onset of MS is typically characterised by
temporal sensory deficits and tingling sensations or motor deficits. This
however will recover completely in the earlier stages of the disease; Relapsing
remitting MS. Over time, some symptoms will not recover and the disease will
become progressive. Aside from the sensory and motor deficits, patients might
also experience visual impairments, problems with movement, balance,
coordination, fatigue, incontinence, erectile dysfunction, depression, and
cognitive impairment (CI).

For most of these symptoms, there
are treatment options available in the form of physical, pharmacological
therapy or walking aids etc. However, there are no treatment options available for
patients suffering from cognitive impairmentsVGR1 .1
This affects 43-70% of the 2.5 million patients suffering from MS worldwide.23 The
cognitive impairments can occur from the earliest stage of the disease, and can
affect different aspects of the cognitive functions. This includes memory
loss,  in both short-term and long-term
memory, attention, information processing, etc. CI in these area’s has a
negative effect on the daily lives of patients with MS, ranging from being
unable to do their jobs, running a household, till participating in social
activities and raising their children. Being unable to participate in the
mentioned activities can lead to a decreased quality of life of the patient.
Cognitive impairment can be a significant problem in the lives of patients with
multiple sclerosis, and since there is no pharmacological treatment available,
this systematic review will try to find out if cognitive impairments can
improve under the influence of physical activity. This will be done by answering
the following research question: Will aerobic or strength training have a
positive effect on the cognitive functions in patients with multiple sclerosis?
The hypothesis is that aerobic exercise and strength training will have a
beneficial effect on the cognitive functions in MS patients.VGR2 

The method that will be used for
this systematic review is a systematic search in the databases of Pubmed,
Embase, and Cochrane. The following search terms will be used to find articles
suitable for this systematic review: Multiple Sclerosis, Cognitive Function,
Exercise (Aerobe training), Resistance TrainingVGR3 . Since most studies focus on either aerobic exercise or strength
training, these search terms will be added with an OR instead of AND, to not limit
ourselves to only one of optionsVGR4 . The search will make use of MeSH terms and tiab to gather a wide selection
of articles. Next, the selection of articles will be made based on the title
and abstract. This will be done to exclude any articles irrelevant to this
review. Moreover, a final selection will be done by examining the articles and
determining whether they should be included based on their methods used. The
findings of all the relevant articles will be analysed to reach a conclusion
and answer the research question.

 

 

1 Niccolai
C, Goretti B, Amato MP. Disease modifying treatments and symptomatic drugs for
cognitive impairment in multiple sclerosis: where do we stand?. Multiple
Sclerosis and Demyelinating Disorders. 2017 Jun 5;2(1):8.

2 Browne
P, Chandraratna D, Angood C, Tremlett H, Baker C, Taylor BV, Thompson AJ. Atlas
of Multiple Sclerosis 2013: A growing global problem with widespread inequity.
Neurology. 2014 Sep 9;83(11):1022-4.

3 Chiaravalloti
ND, DeLuca J. Cognitive impairment in multiple sclerosis. The Lancet Neurology.
2008 Dec 31;7(12):1139-51.

 

 VGR1Dat
is niet helemaal waar: strategietraining heeft wel effecten. Het vebeteren van
de stoornis zelf is lastiger en vertaalt zich niet naar verbeteringen in het
dagelijks functioneren.

 VGR2Gebruik
voor je referenties een programma dat hiervoor bedoeld is en plaats ze
achteraan onder het kopje references.

 VGR3Kijk
bij het uitwerken als mesh termen of je niet nog meer synoniemen moet meenemen.
Verder nog toevoegen of je restricties qua taal en/of  periode hanteert.

 VGR4Prima!

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