n the second study although very similar to the first, the participants included in the study are helpful in determining whether or not emotion does somehow distort false memories. In Emotional True and False Memories in Children with Callous-Unemotional Traits the researchers aimed to answer whether children with callous traits affect emotional memory. The participants consisted of two groups of children. One group contained children with callous-unemotional traits and one group contained children without callous-unemotional traits. The researchers then used the DRM paradigm to determine whether or not there is a difference between the two groups of children. What they found was that the children possessing callous traits do not vary from the children without callous traits. However, for false recall, or false memory, children with higher callous traits seemed to recall fewer words that were not present in comparison to the children with lower callous traits. The researchers conclude that children with higher callous traits are better at differentiating true and false memories in regards to negative valence. In conclusion, it is clear that emotion is one of the root cause of False Memories. In the first article we see that when adding negative valences to the DRM caused the false allegations rate to become higher than if it were negative and neutral valances. The second article backs up these claims by showing children with callous traits are better at comparing real and false memories because of their detachment to emotion. Both articles have some setbacks. In the article, Emotion and False Memory: The Context–Content Paradox the only way they are able to test it is with the memory test. But if they were to include participants from clinics, such as PTSD victims, they researchers would be able to expand their research and hopefully come to a stronger conclusion. In the article, Emotional True and False Memories in Children with Callous-Unemotional Traits, they should choose participants who are medically diagnosed to have callous-unemotional traits. The participants included were only measure and identified as callous by their parents. Having a concrete method of measuring these traits would offer more dependable research.