NGEE one of the causes of people diagnosed

NGEE ANN POLYTECHNICSchool of Health SciencesDiploma of Health Sciences (Nursing)Nursing Research 1Literature ReviewNameSiti Nursyafiqah Binte Mohamad RamliStudent No.S10181077KTutorial GroupT09Plagiarism DisclaimerI declare that this submission is my own work and that in every case where I have drawn on the work of any other author or source, this is fully and specifically acknowledged in the text of my submission and the works cited in the appended reference list.                                                                Student’s Signature : _______________Lecturer’s Name: _______________Marks: _______________Date: _______________ Psychometric evaluation/properties and characteristics of Diabetes Self-ManagementINTRODUCTIONDiabetes Mellitus is a chronic condition which affects the body’s ability to use the energy found in food. There are three different types of Diabetes Mellitus: Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Gestational Diabetes. It affects a very large population around the whole world and each year, there is a major increment in the morbidity rate. It is estimated by the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) that 382 million people worldwide had Diabetes Mellitus and more than 90% of them are diagnosed with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. The purpose of this review is to revise and conduct a psychometric assessment of Diabetic patients’ self-care activities and/or self-management of Diabetes Mellitus. The purpose is also to explore the content validity and the internal consistency of diabetes self-management. Diabetes and its complications are the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in the world. It had emerged as a crucial element of managing diabetes. One’s lack of knowledge on self-care on Diabetes Mellitus is one of the causes of people diagnosed with Diabetes Mellitus have improper diabetic diet, no knowledge of foot care and checking of blood glucose level.This review screens large number of diabetic patients which aims to provide measurable and objective data which would assess the actual performance of self-care management for Diabetes Mellitus. Assessing of diabetes self-care management is essential for nursing care. Nurses can be considered as healthcare educators too therefore this review would help nurses and other healthcare professionals to educate patients better on foot care, diabetes self-care and self-management. METHOD OF STUDYIn a study conducted by Ghairaibeh, Al-Smadi and Boyle (2017), a cross-sectional methodological design was used with a convenience sampling of 78 adults diagnosed with Diabetes Mellitus. Criteria for the sample were 18 years of age and older with a medical diagnosis of either Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus or Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus within a minimum duration of 6 months and being able to speak and write in English. A questionnaire packet inclusive of the 60-item Diabetes Self-Management Scale (DSMS), Diabetes Self Efficacy Scale (DSES), Diabetes Knowledge Test (DKT) and Appraisal of self-care Agency Scare Revised (ASAS-R) with the researcher’s contact information included for the participants to return it to the investigator without any identifiable information being collected, was given out to the participants. All questionnaires were returned and two participants with most reported complications had high cholesterol level (n=34) and high blood pressure (n=30). 52% of the participants did not smoke or drink. A study conducted by Srinath, Basavegowda and Tharuni (2016) and by Thojampa and Mawn (2017) also used similar questionnaires which contained similar items such as the Glucose Management (GM), Dietary Control (DC), Physical Activity (PA) and Healthcare Use (HU) which had been validated for content validity by a panel of experts consisting of two nurses, one nursing professor, one medical school faculty member and one public health faculty member. Thojampa and Mawn’s (2017) study was a process where an instrument was used in a foreign country using a different language, in a different setting and culture to reduce risk of introducing bias into the study and data collection questions were administered by an interviewer to study to obtain the information. Their results showed excellent content validity, good internal consistency and that the instruments can be used in future studies. PARTICIPANTS’  EDUCATION  LEVEL AND STATUS In Srinath, Basavegowda and Tharuni’s (2016) study, the questionnaires were administered by the interviewer to study to obtain the information. Most of the people lack knowledge on checking of blood glucose level, only 99 out of 400 people went to the doctor to get their blood glucose level checked. 92.5% had good compliance for medication, 72% does diabetic diet, 24.25% practiced foot care, 24.75% practiced blood glucose monitoring and only 25.5% were smokers. Most of the rural diabetic patients do not practice foot care and only one quarter checked and washed their feet daily. Only 2% soaked and dried their feet. Majority of the rural diabetic patients are basically illiterate belonging to low socioeconomic status and lack of resources for setting up of diabetic care units. CONCLUSIONIn conclusion, the questionnaires used in all three studies were reliable to measure self-care management among people who is suffering from diabetes. These studies are done in different countries including rural areas as well therefore, results might differ accordingly. It concluded that knowledge one of the main cause diabetic patients are less compliant on proper foot care, proper diabetic diet and self-glucose monitoring. Somsak Thojampa and Barbara Mawn (2017) did a study in Thailand version to see if it showed any content validity and its results were excellent with good internal consistency and the instruments can be used among Thailand adults with Diabetes Mellitus in future research studies which would help Thailand people diagnosed with diabetes better as most of the studies done needed people who are able to speak and understand English Language in order to participate in the study. With this Thailand version of the questionnaire study, more people can participate and more help and knowledge can passed on to persons with Diabetes Mellitus on self-care management and self-help on Diabetes Mellitus. In a study performed in Norweigian, questionnaires administered by patients with Diabetes Mellitus might be a very reliable source of information for epidemiological purposes in a well defined chronic disease. (Midthjell K, Holmen J, Bkorndol A, Lund-Larsen G, 1992)