Now a days emotional intelligence is topic of interest for students
(Bhattacharyya et al., 2008). And it is widely spreading in every field of life
like (school, work places. etc.) (Pellitteri, 2002). According to Landa et al
(2010), Diener and Suh (2001) have explain that psychological well-being is
positively predicted by emotions. Argyle (1987), Landa et al, (2010) explain
that mental health is assured by the high emotional intelligence.
Armstrong, Galligan, and Critchley (2011), Emotional intelligence is directly
related to resilience. Salovey, Bedell, Detweiler and Mayer (1999) theorized
that who have higher emotional intelligence they are more able to cope up with stressful
situation. “Accurately perceive and appraise their emotions, know how and when
to express their feelings, and can effectively regulate their mood states” (p.
always in relation with psychological wellbeing and mental health. (Avey et
al., 2010). For instance, He, Cao, Feng, and Peng (2013) had investigated
relationship between resilience and psychological well-being, which was
positive relationship. Participants with high resilience had also more
psychological well-being on the other hand participants with low resilience had
less psychological wellbeing and mental strength. Similarly, McDermott, Cobham,
Barry, and Stallman (2010) had discover positive relationship between resilience
and psychological well-being. More mental illness in participants depicts low
level of resilience. And those with less mental illness score high on resilience.
Lee, Sudom, and Zamorski (2013) and significant variance was reported by
resilience in psychological well-being.
Past researches only explain simple relationship between psychological
well-being with other variables. So there is need of study which can explain
the mediating role of resilience between emotional intelligence and psychological
well-being. Thus this study is aimed at finding the mediating role of
resilience between emotional intelligence and psychological well-being.
Objectives. In proposed
study following objectives are formulated:
To investigate the relationship of emotional
intelligence and psychological well-being and Resilience.
To find out the
demographic differences (gender) of Hostelite students on emotional
intelligence, Psychological well-being and Resilience.
Hypotheses. In this research following hypothesis have been formulated:
There will be
positive relationship between emotional intelligence, psychological
well-being and Resilience among Hostelite students.
Emotional intelligence, predicts the psychological well-being.
Resilience is the positive predictor of psychological well-being.
Resilience has the mediating role in the relationship between emotional
intelligence and psychological well-being.
Sample. The sample for proposed study will
consist N= 200 participants. Men (n=100) and women (n =100). After taking the permission from Head of Department the
sample will be drawn from the University of Sargodha.
Operational definition of variables. The
proposed study will use three variables; emotional intelligence, psychological
well-being and Resilience. The operational definitions of these variables are
Goleman describes emotional
intelligence the ability, capacity, skill, or self-perceived ability to
identify, assess, and manage the emotions of one’s self, of others, and of
groups. People who possess a high degree of emotional intelligence know
themselves very well and are also able to sense the emotions of others (as
cited in Serrat, 2009). It is
operationalized on the scores of individual on (SRMEI) scale.
Psychological well-being. Individual meaningful
engagement in life, self- satisfaction, optimal psychological functioning and
development at one’s true highest potential. It has six dimensions that are
autonomy, environmental mastery, personal growth, positive relationship with
other, purpose in life and self-acceptance of individuals (Ryff, 1989).
Resilience. Resilience can
be considered as a process of adaptation to adversity and stress. Resilient
individuals tend to recover from setbacks or trauma and portray a common set of
characteristics that help them cope with challenges in life (McAllister &
McKinnon, 2009; Herrman et al., 2011).
Instrument. According to nature of study, following three scales will be selected,
named self –Report measure of emotional
intelligence scale (SRMEI) , Psychological-Well-Being-Scales-(PWB)
and Brief Cope Scale. The
detailed description of these scales are given below:
Self –report measure of emotional
intelligence scale (SRMEI). Self –Report measure of emotional
intelligence scale (SRMEI) will be used to access
the emotional intelligence. This scale consists of 33items with scoring answers
on five-point scale (5= strongly agree, 4= agree, 3= neither disagree nor
agree, 2= Disagree and 1= strongly disagree). Reliability
of SRMEI scale is .91.
The Psychological Well-Being scale (PWB) consists of eight items
describing important aspects of human functioning ranging from positive
relationships, to feelings of competence, to having meaning and purpose in
life. Response format is from 1-7(strongly disagree to strongly Agree). Add up all the items high scorer will depict high psychological
well-being. Test-retest reliability
coefficient ranged between .78 and .97.
The Brief Resilience Scale. There are six items of the brief resilience scale (BRS). Item no 1,
3 an5 are having positive wording while 2, 4, and 6 are reverse coded items.
The BRS can be scored by reversing item number 2, 4 and 6 and then by taking
mean of all 6 items. That is five point Likert scale. 1 = strongly disagree, 2 = disagree, 3 =
neutral, 4 = agree, 5 = strongly agree.”
Reliability analysis using Cronbach’s Alpha was .93, indicating that the
scale has good reliability.
i.e. age. Gender
Procedure. For proposed study N=200
participants will be approached. Men (n=100)
and women (n =100). After taking the informed consent form, the
participants will complete the three questionnaires used in proposed study;
SRMEI, PWB and BRS scales. The
demographic information questionnaire will be also used. Participants will be
given approximately 40 minutes to complete set of questionnaires.
Proposed analysis .After collecting data; Suitable statistical analysis will be done
by using SPSS for testing the objectives and hypotheses.
Ethical consideration. I will not physically harm any person .I will make sure
that the respondents have been willingly participated in the research. Any
deception regarding objective of research will be avoided. The participants
will be assured that their privacy shall be kept confidence.
Number of Participants, Mean Scores, and Standard
Deviations for Emotional Intelligence
Psychological Well-being, and Resilience.
Note: N= Number of Participants, M= Mean Score, SD=
These are descriptive findings of all three variables.
Pearson co-relation between Criterion and predicted
**.Correlation is significant at 0.01level (2-tailed)
As shown in Table 2 there is significant positive
relationship of emotional intelligence with resilience (r =1.27, P < 0.01) and psychological well-being (r = 47.88, P < 0.01). And there exists a significant positive relationship between resilience and psychological well-being. (r = 4.16, P < 0.01). Table 3 Regression Table for the Emotional Intelligence and psychological well-being. Predictor Variable Criterion Variable F R R Square Adjusted R² ? T p Emotional Intelligence Psychological Well-being 181.66 .692 .478 .476 .692 13.47 .000 Table 3 shows that, emotional Intelligence had significant positive effect on psychological well-being of students (F = 181.6, P < 0.01). Note: ?=Coefficient of Regression; F=F-test; t=t-test; P=Significant Level; R=Coefficient of Correlation; R2=Coefficient of Determination. Table 4 Regression based on Effect of resilience on psychological Well-being. Predictor Variable Criterion Variable F R R Square Adjusted R² ? T p Resilience Psychological Well-being 8.603 .204 .042 .037 .204 2.93 .004 Table 4 shows that, Resilience had significant positive effect on psychological well-being (F = 8.603, P < 0.05) Note: ?=Coefficient of Regression; F=F-test; t=t-test; P=Significant Level; R=Coefficient of Correlation; R2=Coefficient of Determination. Table 5. Regression of Psychological Well-Being based on resilience by controlling the dimensions of Emotional Intelligence. Predictor Variable Criterion Variable F P R R2 ? T P Psychological Well being 96.38 0.01 .703 .495 Emotional Intelligence .677 13.28 .000 Resilience .128 2.504 0.01 Table No. 5 depicts that, Emotional Intelligence and Resilience had significant positive effect on psychological well-being. (P < 0.01, F = 96.38). Also, Results depicts that emotional intelligence (P < 0.01, ? = .677) is positive predictor of psychological well-being. And resilience is also significant positive predictor of psychological well-being (P < 0.01, ? = .128). 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