Only holds the howto subdirectory in which to
Only if you have both Microsoft Windows and
Linux on your system. Includes Windows data in the Windows partition of your system.
Whether you can edit the output in this command depends on the file system your
Windows partition uses. If it is FAT32, you can open and edit the files in this
directory. However, for an NTFS file system you can only read your Windows
files from Linux, but do not change them. Learn more about File Access on
Different Operating Systems on the Same Computer.
Whereas /usr holds static, read-only data, /var is for data which is
written during system operation and thus is variable data, such as log files or
spooling data. For example, the log files of your system are in /var/log/messages (only accessible for root).
are installed on your system /usr/share/doc also holds the howto subdirectory in which to
find additional documentation on many tasks relating to the setup and operation
of Linux software.
Under packages, find the documentation
included in the software packages installed on your system. For every package,
a subdirectory /usr/share/doc/packages/packagename is created that often
holds README files for the package and sometimes examples, configuration files,
or additional scripts.
Holds various documentation files and the
release notes for your system. In the manual subdirectory, find an
online version of this manual. If more than one language is installed, this
directory may contain versions of the manuals for different languages.
In this directory, the system administrator
can install local, distribution-independent extensions.
Contains programs reserved for the system
administrator, such as repair functions.
Contains generally accessible programs.
/usr has nothing to do with users, but is the
acronym for UNIX system resources. The data in /usr is static, read-only data that can be
shared among various hosts compliant to the File system Hierarchy Standard
(FHS). This directory contains all application programs and establishes a
secondary hierarchy in the file system. /usr holds a number of subdirectories, such as /usr/bin, /usr/sbin, /usr/local, and /usr/share/doc.
Storing Files in /tmp
Do not store any
files in /tmp that you want to keep. This directory is
automatically cleaned up by the system and files are removed in the process.
that require temporary storage of files use this directory. By default, the
data stored in /tmp I s deleted regularly.
Holds data for services provided by the
system, such as FTP and HTTP.
As the s indicates, this directory holds utilities
for the superuser. /sbin contains binaries essential for booting,
restoring, and recovering the system in addition to the binaries in /bin.
Home directory for the root user. Personal data of root is located here.
Reserved for the installation of additional
software. Optional software and larger add-on program packages, such as the KDE
and GNOME desktop environments, can be found here.
This directory provides a mount point for a
temporarily mounted file system. Root may mount file systems here.
Contains mount points for removable media,
such as CD-ROMs, USB sticks, and digital cameras (if they use USB). /media generally holds any type
of drive except the hard drive of your system. As soon as your removable medium
has been inserted or connected to the system and has been mounted, you can
access it from here.
Contains essential shared libraries needed
to boot the system and to run the commands in the root file system. The Windows
equivalent for shared libraries are DLL files.
Home Directory in a
If you are working
in a network environment, your home directory may be mapped to a directory in
the file system other than /home.
Holds the private data of every user who
has an account on the system. The files
located here can only be modified by their owner or by the system
administrator. By default, your e-mail directory and personal desktop
configuration are located here.
Contains local configuration files that
control the operation of programs like the X Window System. The /etc/init.d subdirectory contains scripts that are executed during the boot
Holds device files that represent hardware
Contains data required for booting, such as
the boot loader, the kernel, and other data that is used before the kernel
begins executing user mode programs.
Contains the basic shell commands that may
be used both by root and by other users.
These commands include ls, mkdir, cp, mv, rm,
and rmdir. /bin also contains Bash, the default shell in
following list provides more
detailed information and gives some examples which files and subdirectories can
be found in the directories:
starting point of the directory tree.
files, such as commands that are needed by both the system administrator and
normal users. Usually also contains the shells, such as Bash.
Static files of the
Files needed to
access host-specific devices.
libraries and kernel modules.
Mount points for
Mount point for
temporarily mounting a file system.
Add-on application software packages.
Home directory for
the super user root.
Data for services
provided by the system.
with read-only data.
Variable data such
as log files
Only available if
you have both Microsoft Windows* and Linux installed on your system. Contains
the Windows data.
Table.1. Overview of a Standard
The following table provides a short
overview of the most important higher-level directories you find on a Linux
system. Find more detailed information about the directories and important
subdirectories in the following list.
2. The Directory Structure
For more detailed information about file
system permissions, see file access permissions. In addition to the traditional
permission concept for file system objects, there are also existing extensions
dealing with more flexible permissions. Read more Linux access control lists
Because Linux is a multi-user system, each
file in the Linux file system belongs to the user and group. Only one file or
directory (or, of course, root) can be granted access to other users who own
it. Which mainly distinguishes between three different types of access
permissions: Write permission, Read permission and execute permission. Could
youaccess a file or a folder if you have at least read permission to it. There
are several Ways to change access permissions for files and folders:
traditionally, with the help of a shell or desktop file manager (see
“Changing Access Permissions” (Part 1, Getting Started with the KDE
Desktop, KDE User’s Guide), if you have root privileges, Read how to do it in a
shell while changing file permissions
File system controls
Linux, like Windows, is also found in
hidden files with “normal” files. These are usually configuration
files that you do not want to see or access as a normal user. In Linux, hidden
files are referred to as a point (for example, .hiddenfile). (Chapter 1,
Getting Started with KDE Desktop, ? KDE User Guide) can now be rendered as a
row manager or shell appearance, you can use a particular command using the
command options “section as described in
As in the Windows operating system, files
can be on the Linux file extension, such as .txt, but you do not need to add.
When you start working with Shell, sometimes you are used to insert the
contents of the directory which makes it difficult for beginners to create
differences between files and folders, depending on the commands. Learn more
about some of Shell’s core Shell Shell orders. If you use the graphical file
manager in KDE or Gnome (see the GNOME User’s Guide and KDE User’s Guide) and
files and folders, depending on the display that symbolizes the various icons
Which distinguishes between upper and lower
letters in the file system. For example, because the file name test.txt,
TeST.txt, or Test.txt will make a difference in Linux. This also applies to
directories: You can not access a directory named Messages by Name.
Sensitivity of the situation
It may seem complex or cumbersome at first
glance to this structure and separation of the concept, which provides a great
deal of flexibility: for example, it can be easily installed from another
device on the network in a directory and you can move in this directory as you
think on the local machine.
Devices are usually not
visible in the directory tree unless they are connected. This means that the
directory tree is integrated into the file system in a particular location. As
a normal user, you can not access data in a partition or device unless it is
inserted. However, do not worry – most of the time you do not have to manually
connect partitions or devices. During the installation of your system, you can
select the parts that will be installed automatically when you start the
system. Removable devices are usually detected automatically and installed by
your system. Desktop environments such as KDE or Gnome will tell you about the
emergence of a new device.
Another important difference between
Windows / DOS and Linux is the concept of installing and removing partitions,
drivers, or directories. During the Windows boot process, the partitions detect
the drivers and assign them a drive letter. However, sections in Linux
Installation and separation
Linux does not use drive letters as Windows
does. In the Linux operating system, it is “normal” to say that only
one path, partition, drive, device name, network device, or directory.
Plate, Engine / Equipment & Manuals
Unlike the Windows operating system, Linux
does not use backslashes for individual components for the path name. It uses a
slash instead. For example, the data can be stored under Linux / Home / Osernam
/ Litters under C: Documents Mail for Windows users.
Find the basics of the Linux file system
listed below that highlight some of the fundamental differences between Linux
and the Windows / DOS file system:
In Linux all files and directories look
like a tree. The parent directory is called the root filesystem or / (should
not be confused with the root user). On Windows systems it will probably be C:
. All other directories in Linux are accessible from the root directory and
are organized in a hierarchical structure.
In Linux you can choose whether you want to
manage files and folders with a file manager, or whether you want to use a
traditional command line. The second is usually faster, but some commands
require that you have a deeper knowledge of how files are created, deleted or
changed. For more information about commands used to change files, see Working
with files and directories. File Manager provides a more intuitive and
graphical way to accomplish these tasks. Learn more about GNOME and KDE file
managers from GNOME User’s Guide and KDE User’s Guide. Regardless of the method
you choose, the following sections provide basic information about the file
system and provide an overview of the default directory structure for Linux.1. Basic Features
All users, including super users, have
their own directories that store all private data such as documents, addresses
or emails. User Ripper can only change the central configuration files or
system directories that carry executable files. Learn more about how to change
access permissions and file permissions to meet your needs.
The Linux File System