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1.
Introduction

In
this seminar paper, I will present a case study of Aphasia and its
relation to Morphology by giving a closer insight to a scientific
paper – Morphology and Aphasia by William Badecker and Alfonso
Caramazza (2001). According to NAA (National Aphasia Association)
“Aphasia in an impairment of language, affecting the production or
comprehension of speech and the ability to read or write.” Topics
that are covered in this paper are related to cases and methods that
in different ways and situations refer to damages and errors of
language and linguistics. They emphasize pacients’ problems of
reading, spelling, understanding and combining words, making and
configuration of sentences and different reactions and disorders all
which are described further in the text.

2.
Morphological paraphasia

Morphological
damage is the damage of language or linguistics, which happens most
often due to stroke, and can result from a long stressful state of
the person. Morphological errors are highlighted in the production of
the sentence, or in its writing, reading and pronunciation. Such
disorders can investigate the cognitive mechanism of a person and the
character of his lexical treatment and finding the form of words and
the formation of sentences. The study of aphasia and the damage that
is caused by it, is a very important source of proof of the
morphological possibilities of writing, reading and combining words
and/or sentences. By researching and studying a larger number of
patients, it was visible that no patient had a clear morphological
deficit, and this is not accidental, because lexical morphology is
one that connects an expanded set of lexical meanings to an expanded
fund of lexical forms, and the lack of this ability causes various
semantic, phonological and spelling mistakes . Badecker and Caramazza
(2001) argue that factors such as the frequency of the attachment of
words and their trees, semantic abstraction and lexical similarities
of the form prove that patients make mistakes in words.
3.
Morphological composition

An
example is a patient S.J.D. who speaks English and shows its lexical
disorder, which has the appearance of spontaneous speech and the
reading and repetition of one and the same word. Additionally, the
patient reads the whole word for another summit
for
summon and
phonemic paraphases shrilly
as
srili
and
sruli.
Since S.J.D. produced very few phonemic paraphases compared to the
morphological errors, proves that its morphological errors are only a
consequence of phonological errors. It should be taken into account
that the case of S.J.D shows a selective difficulty in the production
of fixed forms. Forms
like youthful
produced as youthly
were visible in her reading, repetition, spontaneous speech and
writing to dictation. This is a proof that phonological replacements
are a credible alternative to an account that says errors arise from
the composition of words. Moreover, combinations of morpheme in its
insertions and substitution errors included flexible and productive
derivative attachments. It can be concluded that in some patients the
production of morphological errors reflects a worsening mechanism for
the morphological composition under normal conditions. Patient
S.J.D. is an example of compositional procedures as part of a normal
lexical device. The problem of a lexical device is that it is
considered, in fact, only a set of security procedures that apply
when a normal or primary system stops functioning. But if the backup
is also damaged, the performance level will be determined solely by
the retention of the entire word system.
3.
Mophological production

The
productivity or the measure of the ability to make a word creation
rule to add new forms of shaping meaningful words is a property of
the lexical system that still receives attention. Phonological
transparency and semantic compositions are the rules for performing
morphologically complex words, meaning that constant collaboration of
complex words is still a topical issue of how these correlations
coincide. Numerous studies and morphology studies of complex words
have found that patients who have difficulty in naming objects where
objects play a role of productivity in determining how words are
processed. In contrast to performance, the mixing mechanism can give
forms that have unpredictable semantic properties. In general, the
relation of form and meaning is not so arbitrary.

F.S.,
an Italian-speaking patient is an example of a case-by-case reduction
that had a lexical damage that resulted in morphological paraphasics
shown in spontaneous speech and repetition. His mistakes largely
influenced the flexible specification of the word (gender and
numerical nouns and adjectives), while derivative morphology did not
have any influence to his damage. His morphological errors could
simply be manifested because they had the tendency of creating an
infinitive forms of verbs and singular forms of nouns. However, it
should not be assumed that all the resulting damages are only a
product of a lexical disorder but performance as well.

Other
case studies have exhibited cases of deteriorating understanding of
the sentence. In the task of supervising the word; patient D.E. was
sensitive to the contextual appropriateness of words when using the
wrong derivative form. Taking into account that flexible forms can
stimulate divergent syntactic expectations, it is quite clear that
D.E.’s sentence can be interpreted as this morphological disorder. In
the second study B.N. has shown a pervading morphological damage as
its performance monitoring presented a sensitivity to syntactic ill-
formation. The study was conducted on the use of inappropriate,
cluttered forms and lexical abuse, but it failed to show the
sensitivity to these morphological differences in the task of
evaluating grammar.
4.
Conclusion

This
paper discussed morphological damages in speaking, writing and making
words and sentences as well as cognitive
mechanismes and its functions and principles. I tried to appoint
different linguistic problems – replacing whole words for other ones,
phonemic paraphases, speaking disorders,difficulties in creating a
sentences by providing examples of people suffering from aphasia and
how they cope it. Nowadays, aphasia is increasing in its number of
affected persons and given that reason it is very important to raise
awareness of the difficulties that patients face caused by it.
Furthermore, many linguists accepted aphasia as a part of phonology,
and they came to the same approach to helping medicine and speech
therapists. Some people with aphasia have problems with fluent
speech, others speak very fluently but have lost the notion of
differences between phonemes and the structures that they say or
write are not in line with what the intentions of communication are.
With this work, I tried to define aphasia, classify it and divide it
into some of the most important types, while simultaneously applying
it to concrete phonological realizations.