Pakistan’s the country1. All of these systems

Pakistan’s Vulnerabilities in Cyberspace. Pakistan’s cyber vulnerabilities landscape is extremely
diverse in terms of technology, and is evolving at a very rapid pace. Critical
vulnerabilities in this domain includes:-

4.5.1    Industrial
Sec.            The widespread of
ICT has drastically changed the industrial atmosphere as well. The old isolated
industrial system had an inherent security from the network worms and viruses.
However invasion of internet protocols and Ethernet technology in industrial
sectors resulted in development of industrial control system communication only
known as Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition System (SCADA). However, the
automation has made industrial system prone to network worms, viruses and
intrusions. Pakistan has employed SCADA system in power and communication sec
since early 90s. The nerve sys of electricity distribution is being monitored
and control through SCADA system installed at National Power Control Centre
(NPCC) Islamabad since 1990. At present,
there are numerous public and commercial organisations in Pakistan who have
deployed SCADA sys connected through internet or local area network (LAN). Sui
Southern Gas Company (SSGC), Oil and Gas Development Corporation (OGDC), Dewan
group of industries and Telecommunication Companies are few among the massively
employed SCADA system in the country1. All of these
systems are equally prone to Stuxnet
type attacks (Appendix I). unless concrete steps are not taken to enhance their security through
provision of a secure cyber space and trusted networked environments.

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4.5.2    Government
Organisations/ State Institutions. While we store personal data on our
computers and devices, it is not just us. Our government and various state
institutions also do so. While it is safe to assume that our sensitive agencies
and organisations protect their data and take steps to ensure its integrity, it
is not always true for most of the organisations. Few vital organisations prone
to cyber attacks are:-

Excise and Taxation database.           

Capital Market

NADRA database.    




4.5.3         Terrorism. Terrorism has emerged as contemporary and
specialized activity in today’s world due to heavy use of internet and cyber
technology by the Terrorists. Pakistan can emerge as a very lucrative place for
such like activities. On 21 Aug 2013, Pakistan Intelligence Agencies busted a
communication hub of Al-Qaeeda resulting in arrest of Terroristss and IT
gadgets. The evidences revealed that Terrorists were not only utilizing it as a
communication centre through employment of hundreds of mobile SIMs, DSL routers
and multiple broadband internet connections for their communication across the
globe but also abducting well-off personalities for ransom to support the
Terrorist organisations2.
Similarly a case study conducted in this
regard also revealed illegal money transaction to Afghanistan as funding and
supporting to Terrorist’s groups 3.

4.5.4         Propaganda
War. Our adversary is using few themes in the international and
domestic Cyberspace for causing negativity and resentment against Pakistan. Few
hazardous  themes in this context are4:-

Baluchistan Separatist Movement.  Negative
propaganda and disinformation about creating unnecessary hype for the
separatist movement. Most of the pictures, details and stories are
self-created. Also supporting separatist stance on
Baluchistan by introduction of various controversial groups on Facebook.

Safety and Security of Pakistan
Nuclear Arms. In international media India tries to create an impression as if
Pakistan’s Nuclear Arms are unsafe and can be taken over by separatist groups
and terrorists.

Disinformation about Military
Operations by Defence Forces. The main focus remains on creating
an uncertain situation by hovering the thoughts around weak political system,
displaced populace and collateral damage. The same was experienced during
Operation Rah-e-Rast, and is now being experienced during Operation Zarb-e-Azb.

Muhammad Zufran, “Power system control, Status of SCADA system in Pakistan” 4 Apr


2 Online source at -s-technical-hub-busted-in

Ayaz Khan, Uffe Kock Will and Nasrullah Memon, “Digital forensics and crime
investigation: Legal issues in prosecution at national level” Fifth
international workshop on systematic approaches to digital forensic
engineering, 2010


4 DG C. “Cyber
Warfare.” Lecture, Command and Staff College , Quetta, September 19, 2017