PART – 2Critical Analysis Of The Problems Of Education12. The education system of Pakistan despite of towering claims and plans faces the following problems which are critically analyzed below; a. Lack of uniformity. The system of education in Pakistan according to Iqbal (1981) is not based on uniform principles 5. Different systems of education are simultaneously working in the country. The curriculum is also not uniformed which has given birth to different schools of thoughts. For example there is a world of difference between the attitudes of students coming out from the public educational institutions, Deeni Madaris and the few private elite institutions. This trend has accelerated the pace of polarization in the society. According to Zaki (1989) this is the result of divisive Pakistani education system 1. This system has created a huge gap among the nation and even has deeply penetrated into the cultural veins of the nation. The recent wave of terrorism and the increasing sectarian division are the logical consequences of this divided system of education. As a result of this current polarized system of education there has occurred a great social division in the society on political, social and economic grounds rather than unity among the people which is cutting knee deep the ideological and social foundation of the nation leading towards further divisions on linguistic and regional grounds which can poetentailly damage the social cohesion and fabric of the society 7. b. Education without direction. A sound education system is essential for every nation of the world 8. Every nation develops its generation on the basis of vigorous training and education on social, political, economic and ideological grounds. Pakistani education system due being directionless and weak has not been able to develop and guide its people on sound political and social grounds. There is lack of cohesion in the system and it is more prone towards general education which does not bring any skilled manpower to the market. Resulting there is increasing unemployment. This situation may promote sense of deprivation among the masses 9. Due to this there is cultural and political unrest in the society. Besides, there is lack of educational opportunities for science and technology. In this way the development of thinking, reasoning and creativity of students is not being polished. c. Outdated Curriculum. Curriculum is the tool through which the goals of education are achieved. The curriculum of education in Pakistan does not meet the demands of the current times. It is an old and traditional curriculum which compels the learners to memorize certain facts and figures without taking into consideration the reality that education is the holistic development of an individual. It places much emphasis on the psychology of the learner as well which cannot be negated in the process of teaching and learning. The objectives of education must be developed the psychological, philosophical and sociological foundations of education. The present educational curriculum of Pakistan does not meet these modern standards of education and research. Hence this curriculum is not promoting the interest of the learner for practical work, research, scientific knowledge and reflective observation, rather, it emphasizes on memory and theory 4. d. Lack of professional development of teachers. Training is essential for quality performance. Teaching is a challenging job. There is lack of training opportunities for teachers in Pakistan. Although there various teacher training institutes in the country. These institutes are either not well resourced or being poor run due to lack of fund and trained human resource such trainers and administrators. There are no proper training standards in the available training institutes around the country. Most of the training institutes have been closed down due to lack of funds. The courses being run in the teacher education intuitions are outdated and very traditional which does not enhance the skills, motivation and quality of teachers 1. d. Lack of quality teachers. Teacher is the backbone of education system. The quality of teachers in Pakistani schools is deplorable. According to a UNESCO report, the quality of the teachers and instruction in schools is of low quality 5. This situation is grimmer in remote parts of Punjab, Sindh and Baluchistan where even there are no teachers available in schools. Research has found that teachers do not use new methods and strategies of teaching and learning 3. Majority of the teachers do not know about lesson planning which renders them incapable of dealing with various problems in the process of teaching and learning. Teachers encourage cramming of the materials by students. Students do not know the use of libraries in educational institutions. Thus the reading habits are decreasing among the students. Teachers are highly responsible for all this mess. It is their professional responsibility to guide the students towards book reading. Teachers rely on lecture methods which do provide an opportunity to students to participate in the process of education as active member. They only note does the information and memorize this just to pass the examination. Thus students are evaluated on the basis of memorization of facts and information rather than performance 10.e. Alarming dropouts Due to lack of effective management of schools there is lack of discipline in schools and other educational institutions which leads to high scale dropouts of students. This trend has increased to such an extent that there are now 40 lac students out of school due to drop out in Pakistan. This trend according to Hayes (1989) is due to partly the punishment in schools, poor motivating or unattractive school environment and partly due to weak parenting on the part of parents 11. Child labour and poverty is also one of the reasons for dropouts form schools. An estimated 30 percent of children enrolled in primary education reach to the matric level. This trend in Pakistan has added to the low literacy rate as well 8.