Plastics naturally in the environment that end up

are made of polymers, since starch is a natural polymers and it is
biodegradable, starch is very favorable raw material in plastic making. Plastic
does not decompose easily in the environment, so we come up with an idea in
making biodegradable plastic. Biodegradable plastic is a plastic that decompose
naturally in the environment that end up with a result of having less harmful
environment. In this study, the researcher would like to obtain biodegradable
plastic derived from starch-based material. The cassava starch will be used to
make biodegradable plastic to reduce non-biodegradable plastics. This will help
solve the concern in environmental problem, climate change, pollution problem
that plastics contribute that end up in destroying the environment.

environment is now polluted, one of the reason is the non-biodegradable
plastic. Plastic can give us environmental issues and pollution. Cassava starch
as an effective component in making ideal biodegradable can help replace the
conventional non-biodegradable plastic that causes big problem to the earth. Cereda
et al. (1992, 1995) showed that the application of Cassava starch have been providing a great
appearance, without stickiness, exhibiting luster and also transparency.
 Using raw material in making
biodegradable plastic will help the environment in reducing and recovering
issues and pollution. This study will able to help the society with its
environmental issues and practice us to use environmental-friendly materials
that does not add pollution problems.

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Since plastic are composed of artificial polymers, it
takes time to degrade but it was predicted to be decompose a hundred or
thousands of years (Kershaw et al., 2011). Plastic products create
litter, hurt wild life and marine life and threaten the basis of life on earth.
So people need an alternative and effective component of plastic that is safe.
Through this study, the researcher will able to help the animals, people and
environment. It also helps the earth in reducing the pollutants and toxic or
harmful wastes. Biodegradable plastic could be an effective solution to those
problems and could save many lives in earth including the environment and can
be preserve in future generation.

study only covers plastic sheets not including other plastic materials such as
plastic bags, plastic container, plastic cups and other plastic utensils. Most
of the materials used in experiment are accessible. However, there are few
materials that are not available in nearby store. This experimentation includes
sun-drying that can end up with a result of long process. It will test the
capability of the cassava starch if it will be an effective component for an
ideal biodegradable plastic. The researchers started this project on August 2,
2017 up to         and conducted it in              .

Plastic are non-biodegradable (Kržan, 2012)
that’s why microorganism cannot easily decompose plastic waste (Hasan, 2006) because
plastics are typically composed of artificial synthetic polymers. Starch-based materials has been marked advancing the
development of biodegradable plastic (Smith and Sangseethong, 2006) one of the
example of renewable natural material that can be use in plastic making is
cassava starch (Harsojuwono and Arnata, 2014). Cassava starch gives a big possibility of being an effective component
for an ideal biodegradable plastic.


Chapter 2

In order for us to
have a successful experiment, we should prepare the following materials. Stove,
the stove supply enough heat to achieve the right consistency of the mixture.
Next is pot, it is where the mixture of the bioplastic will be mix. Next is measuring
spoon, we highlight using tablespoon and teaspoon, this measures the ingredient
for the bioplastic making and we also need a whisk for mixing. Lastly a flat
container, it is where the finish mixture will be put with the help of spatula
by scraping it and it is where the drying method will happen. In conducting our
ideal bioplastic, we should have the following ingredients. First is the
cassava starch, it is the base or the backbone of the plastic. Next is the
water, the water’s role is used as a solvent to get and alter the biopolymer
which is the starch into the solution. Next is vinegar, it has  acetic acid that helps the starch to dissolve
easily because of the presented ions in the mixture. Lastly is the glycerine or
glycerol, it act as a plasticizer in which it makes the plastic flexible.

To make our ideal
bioplastic, we should follow the proper procedures. First, prepare all the
things needed. Second, get the pot and put the proper measurements of the ingredients
with the use of measuring spoon, the measurements are the following: 1 tbsp
cassava starch, 4 tbsp water, 1 tsp vinegar and 1 tsp glycerine; then mix it
with the use of whisk until it will look like a milk. Next is turn the stove on
and put the pot on it and start stirring it, in a couple of minutes, it started
to change it form like a molding glue, then turning into white gel, just keep
stirring until it achieve the thick consistency and a clear and transparent
appearance excluding the bubbles, once you achieve it, stir it again in a
couple of minutes. After that, turn off the stove, cool it down for a few minutes
and put it in a flat container but you can also directly put finish mixture of
bioplastic in a flat container. Then proceed to the drying method, there are many
kinds of drying method when it comes in bioplastic: sun-drying method is also a
method of it but it takes a couple of days even weeks, but you can also place it
in a dry cool place, a perfect condition for drying. You can also use oven but
the temperature must be low or else it will melt again and lastly is the hair blower.
In this study, the researcher come up with sun-drying method first but it take
so long  to dry up to we decided to use
the hair blower and oven method in separate bioplastic.


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