Poverty Term Paper

Outline I. Introduction A. Significance of the Study B. What is Poverty? C. History of Poverty in the Philippines D. Demographics of Poverty II. Entrenched factors associated with poverty A. Colonial Histories B. Centralization of Power C. Corruption D. Warfare E. Environmental degradation F. Social Inequality III. Lethal and Long-term Effect of Poverty A. Health B. Education C. Housing D. Violence E. Substance/Drug Abuse IV. Poverty Diminution/Reduction A. Holistic Approach B. Economic Liberalization C. Good Institutions V. Conclusion VI. Bibliography I. INTRODUCTION Indeed, if we consider the unblushing promises of reward and the staggering nature of the rewards promised in the Gospels, it would seem that Our Lord finds our desires, not too strong, but too weak. We are half-hearted creatures, fooling about with drink and sex and ambition when infinite joy is offered us, like an ignorant child who wants to go on making mud pies in a slum because he cannot imagine what is meant by the offer of a holiday at the sea. ” [1] Poverty is a condition in which a person or community is deprived of, or lacks the essentials for a minimum standard of well-being and life.

Since poverty is understood in many senses, these essentials may be material resources such as food, safe drinking water, and shelter, or they may be social resources such as access to information, education, health care, social status, political power, or the opportunity to develop meaningful connections with other people in society. Poverty may also be defined in relative terms. In this view income disparities or wealth disparities are seen as an indicator of poverty and the condition of poverty is linked to questions of scarcity and distribution of resources and power.

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Poverty is also a type of religious vow, a state that may be taken on voluntarily in keeping with practices of piety and the effort to come closer to God and the realm of spirit by denying the desires of the body. Significance of the Study The Philippines is one of the three countries granted exemption in 1995 from the removal of quantitative restriction (QR) on rice under Annex 5 of the World Trade Organization (WTO) agreement. Japan and South Korea are the other two countries. The exemption will expire on December 31, 2004.

The primary objective of the paper is to [1] C. S. Lewis, “The Jesus I Never Knew” by Philip Yancey, (Michigan: Zondervan Grand Rapids, 1995), p. 111 look at the possible poverty and distributional effects of the removal of the QR and the reduction in tariffs on rice imports. In particular, the paper attempts to analyze the following issues: (a) The causes and faces of poverty here in the Philippines (b) The alternative or accompanying policy/step does the government imply to stop the long-term effect of poverty in the Philippines. c) The measures we have to take in order for us to lessen this poverty in our country. These are some critical issues that the government may have to address as it implements gauges for poverty diminution and reduction. [2] What is Poverty? Those looking for definitions of poverty are likely to find many, and even find specific poverty tests which are administered to determine statistics like world poverty or the number of children that are in an impoverished state. The term itself is somewhat slippery to define, and may have different meanings depending upon country of origin.

It can usually be thought of as the state of lacking resources that would provide people with basic necessities, or that force people to go without certain needed things like three meals a day or shelter. Yet it ought to be understood that people can still have some of these things, like a roof over their heads, and yet not enough of other things, like food, money to seek medical treatment, or to purchase adequate clothing. [3] Poverty has been redefined in industrial countries, so that anyone at the lower end of the income distribution is poor ex officio, as it was—poor by virtue of having less than the rich.

And of course by this logic, the only way of eliminating poverty is by an egalitarian redistribution of wealth—even if the society as a whole were to become poorer as a result. [4] [2] Kaleen Alejandro, Poverty in the Philippines, Politics and Government (Philippines: www. oppapers. com, 2010), p. 4 [3] Tricia Ellis-Christensen, What is Poverty? , Poverty Line (United States: www. geekwise. com, 2003), p. 1 [4] Theodore Dalrymple, What is Poverty? , (England: www. cityjournal. org, 1999), p. 2 History of Poverty in the Philippines

Individuals are said to be in absolute poverty when they are unable to obtain at least a specified minimum of the food, clothing, and shelter that are considered necessary for continued survival. In the Philippines, two such minimums have been established. The poverty line is defined in terms of a least-cost consumption basket of food that provides 2,016 calories and 50 grams of protein per day and of nonfood items consumed by families in the lowest quintile of the population. In 1988 the poverty line for a family of six was estimated to be P2,709 per month.

The subsistence level is defined as the income level that allows purchase of the minimum food requirements only. In 1985 slightly more than half the population lived below the poverty line, about the same proportion as in 1971. The proportion of the population below the subsistence level, however, declined from approximately 35 percent in 1971 to 28 percent in 1985. The economic turndown in the early 1980s and the economic and political crisis of 1983 had a devastating impact on living standards. The countryside contained a disproportionate share of the poor.

For example, more than 80 percent of the poorest 30 percent of families in the Philippines lived in rural areas in the mid-1980s. The majority were tenant farmers or landless agricultural workers. The landless, fishermen, and forestry workers were found to be the poorest of the poor. In some rural regions–the sugar-growing region on the island of Negros being the most egregious example–there was a period in which malnutrition and famine had been widespread. Urban areas also were hard hit, with the incidence of urban poverty increasing between 1971 and 1985 by 13 percentage points to include half the urban population.

The urban poor generally lived in crowded slum areas, often on land or in buildings without permission of the owner; hence, they were referred to as squatters. These settlements often lacked basic necessities such as running water, sewerage, and electricity. According to a 1984 government study, 44 percent of all occupied dwellings in Metro Manila had less than thirty square meters of living area, and the average monthly expenditure of an urban poor family was P1,315. Of this, 62 percent was spent on food and another 9 percent on transportation, whereas only P57 was pent on rent or mortgage payments, no doubt because of the extent of squatting by poor families. About 55 percent of the poor surveyed who were in the labor force worked in the informal sector, generally as vendors or street hawkers. Other activities included service and repair work, construction, transport services, or petty production. Women and children under fifteen years of age constituted almost 60 percent of those employed. The majority of the individuals surveyed possessed a high school education, and 30 percent had a skill such as dressmaking, electrical repair, plumbing, or carpentry.

Nevertheless, they were unable to secure permanent, full-time positions. [5] Demographics of Poverty Absolute Poverty Poverty is usually measured as either absolute or relative poverty (the latter being actually an index of income inequality). Absolute poverty refers to a set standard which is consistent over time and between countries. Six million children die of hunger every year – 17,000 every day. Selective Primary Health Care has been shown to be one of the most efficient ways in which absolute poverty can be eradicated in comparison to Primary Health Care which has a target of treating diseases.

Disease prevention is the focus of Selective Primary Health Care which puts this system on higher grounds in terms of preventing malnutrition and illness, thus putting an end to Absolute Poverty. The proportion of the developing world’s population living in extreme economic poverty fell from 28 percent in 1990 to 21 percent in 2001. Most of this improvement has occurred in East and South Asia. In East Asia the World Bank reported that “The poverty [5] The Library of Congress Country Studies, “Philippines Extent Poverty”, CIA World Fact book, (Philippines: www. hotius. com, 2004) headcount rate at the $2-a-day level is estimated to have fallen to about 27 percent [in 2007], down from 29. 5 percent in 2006 and 69 percent in 1990. ” In Sub-Saharan Africa extreme poverty went up from 41 percent in 1981 to 46 percent in 2001, which combined with growing population increased the number of people living in extreme poverty from 231 million to 318 million. [6] [6] Kerbo, Harold. , Social Stratification and Inequality, Class Conflict in Historical, Comparative, and Global Perspective. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2006), p. 98 Relative Poverty Relative poverty views poverty as socially defined and dependent on social context, hence relative poverty is a measure of income inequality. Usually, relative poverty is measured as the percentage of population with income less than some fixed proportion of median income. There are several other different income inequality metrics, for example the Gini coefficient or the Theil Index. Relative poverty measures are used as official poverty rates in several developed countries.

As such these poverty statistics measure inequality rather than material deprivation or hardship. The measurements are usually based on a person’s yearly income and frequently take no account of total wealth. The main poverty line used in the OECD and the European Union is based on “economic distance”, a level of income set at 60% of the median household income. [7] Voluntary poverty Among some individuals, such as, poverty is considered a necessary or desirable condition, which must be embraced to reach certain spiritual, moral, or intellectual states.

Poverty is often understood to be an essential element of renunciation in religions such as Buddhism (only for monks, not for lay persons) and Jainism, whilst in Roman Catholicism it is one of the evangelical counsels. Certain religious orders also take a vow of extreme poverty. For example, the Franciscan orders have traditionally foregone all individual and corporate forms of ownership. While individual ownership of goods and wealth is forbidden for Benedictines, following the Rule of St. Benedict, the monastery itself may possess both goods and money, and throughout history some monasteries have become very rich. 8] [7] Michael Blastland. “Just what is poor? “, BBC NEWS, (http://news. bbc. co. uk/1/hi/magazine/8177864. stm, 2008) [8] Smith, Stephen C. , Ending Global Poverty: a guide to what works, (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005), p. 25 II. ENTRENCHED FACTORS ASSICIATED WITH POVERTY Colonial Histories One of the most important barriers to development in poor countries is lack of uniform, basic infrastructure, such as roads and means of communication. Some development scholars have identified colonial history as an important contributor to the current situation.

In most countries with a history of colonization, the colonizers developed local economies to facilitate the expropriation of resources for their own economic growth and development. Centralization of Power In many developing countries, political power is disproportionately centralized. Instead of having a network of political representatives distributed equally throughout society, in centralized systems of governance one major party, politician, or region is responsible for decision-making throughout the country. This often causes development problems.

For example, in these situations politicians make decisions about places that they are unfamiliar with, lacking sufficient knowledge about the context to design effective and appropriate policies and programs. Corruption Corruption often accompanies centralization of power, when leaders are not accountable to those they serve. Most directly, corruption inhibits development when leaders help themselves to money that would otherwise be used for development projects. In other cases, leaders reward political support by providing services to their followers. Warfare

Warfare contributes to more entrenched poverty by diverting scarce resources from fighting poverty to maintaining a military. Take, for example, the cases of Ethiopia and Eritrea. The most recent conflict over borders between the two countries erupted into war during 1999 and 2000, a period when both countries faced severe food shortages due to drought. Environmental degradation Awareness and concern about environmental degradation have grown around the world over the last few decades, and are currently shared by people of different nations, cultures, religions, and social classes.

However, the negative impacts of environmental degradation are disproportionately felt by the poor. Throughout the developing world, the poor often rely on natural resources to meet their basic needs through agricultural production and gathering resources essential for household maintenance, such as water, firewood, and wild plants for consumption and medicine. Thus, the depletion and contamination of water sources directly threaten the livelihoods of those who depend on them. Social Inequality

One of the more entrenched sources of poverty throughout the world is social inequality that stems from cultural ideas about the relative worth of different genders, races, ethnic groups, and social classes. Ascribed inequality works by placing individuals in different social categories at birth, often based on religious, ethnic, or ‘racial’ characteristics. In South African history, apartheid laws defined a binary caste system that assigned different rights (or lack thereof) and social spaces to Whites and Blacks, using skin color to automatically determine the opportunities available to individuals in each group. 9] III. LETHAL AND LONG-TERM EFFECT OF POVERTY Health Hunger, disease, and less education describe a person in poverty. One third of deaths – some 18 million people a year or 50,000 per day – are due to poverty-related causes: in total 270 million people, most of them women and children, have died as a result of poverty since 1990. Those living in poverty suffer disproportionately from [9] Dr. Tony Walsh, “Causes of poverty”, MSU Women and International Development. (USA: GDRC compilation of articles on causes of poverty, 2002), p. 01 hunger or even starvation and disease. Those living in poverty suffer lower life expectancy. According to the World Health Organization, hunger and malnutrition are the single gravest threats to the world’s public health and malnutrition is by far the biggest contributor to child mortality, present in half of all cases. Every year nearly 11 million children living in poverty die before their fifth birthday. 1. 02 billion People go to bed hungry every night. Poverty increases the risk of homelessness.

There are over 100 million street children worldwide. Increased risk of drug abuse may also be associated with poverty. According to the Global Hunger Index, South Asia has the highest child malnutrition rate of the world’s regions. Nearly half of all Indian children are undernourished, one of the highest rates in the world and nearly double the rate of Africa. Every year, more than half a million women die in pregnancy or childbirth. Almost 90% of maternal deaths occur in Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, compared to less than 1% in the developed world.

Women who have born children into poverty may not be able to nourish the children efficiently and provide adequate care in infancy. The children may also suffer from disease that has been passed down to the child through birth. Asthma and rickets are common problems children acquire when born into poverty. [10] Education Research has found that there is a high risk of educational underachievement for children who are from low-income housing circumstances. This often is a process that begins in primary school for some less fortunate children.

In the US educational system, these children are at a higher risk than other children for retention in their grade, special placements during the school’s hours and even not completing their high school education. There are indeed many explanations for why students tend to drop out of [10] Parsons, “Evolutionary and Comparative Perspectives”. Englewood Cliffs. (New Jersey: Prentice-Hall Talcott, Societies, 2004), p. 62 school. For children with low resources, the risk factors are similar to excuses such as juvenile delinquency rates, higher levels of teenage pregnancy, and the economic dependency upon their low ncome parent or parents. Families and society who submit low levels of investment in the education and development of less fortunate children end up with less favorable results for the children who see a life of parental employment reduction and low wages. Higher rates of early childbearing with all the connected risks to family, health and well-being are major important issues to address since education from preschool to high school are both identifiably meaningful in a life. Poverty often drastically affects children’s success in school.

A child’s “home activities, preferences, mannerisms” must align with the world and in the cases that they do not these students are at a disadvantage in the school and most importantly the classroom. Therefore, it is safe to state that children who live at or below the poverty level will have far less success educationally than children who live above the poverty line. Poor children have a great deal less healthcare and this ultimately results in many absences from the academic year. Additionally, poor children are much more likely to suffer from hunger, fatigue, irritability, headaches, ear infections, flu, and colds.

These illnesses could potentially restrict a child or student’s focus and concentration. .[11] Housing Slum-dwellers, who make up a third of the world’s urban population, live in poverty no better, if not worse, than rural people, who are the traditional focus of the poverty in the developing world, according to a report by the United Nations. Most of the children living in institutions around the world have a surviving parent or close relative, and they most commonly entered orphanages because of poverty. Experts and child advocates maintain that orphanages are expensive and often harm [11] Huston, A.

C. , “Children in Poverty”, Child Development and Public Policy. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991), p. 45 children’s development by separating them from their families. It is speculated that, flush with money, orphanages are increasing and push for children to join even though demographic data show that even the poorest extended families usually take in children whose parents have died. [12] Violence According to a UN report on modern slavery, the most common form of human trafficking is for prostitution, which is largely fueled by poverty.

In Zimbabwe, a number of girls are turning to prostitution for food to survive because of the increasing poverty. In one survey, 67% of children from disadvantaged inner cities said they had witnessed a serious assault, and 33% reported witnessing a homicide. 51% of fifth graders from New Orleans (median income for a household: $27,133) have been found to be victims of violence, compared to 32% in Washington, DC (mean income for a household: $40,127). Also there are also many effects of poverty closer to home. For example after dropping out of school children may turn to violence as a source of income i. e. ugging people, betting during street fights etc. [13] Substance abuse Sociologists and others have had difficulties collecting valid information about poverty and drug use. Surveys of drug users do not always present an accurate picture. [12] Atkins, M. S. , McKay, M. , Talbott, E. , & Arvantis, P. (1996). “DSM-IV diagnosis of conduct disorder and oppositional defiant disorder: Implications and guidelines for school mental health teams,” School Psychology Review, 25, 274-283. Citing: Bell, C. C. , & Jenkins, E. J. (1991). “Traumatic stress and children,” Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved, 2, 175-185. 13] Fareed Zakaria (2008-09-20). “How to spread democracy”. (Newsweek. com. Retrieved 2010-10-24), p. 6 For example, some individuals will not reveal the severity of their drug problem or the severity of their poverty. Some information on the drug-using population comes from treatment programs or outreach services. But because not all individuals with drug abuse problems make use of such programs or services, they go uncounted. Many studies focus on drugs more likely to be used by the poor, such as crack cocaine and heroin, and not on drugs such as marijuana and cocaine that are more likely to be used by the middle and pper classes. All of these factors contribute to an inaccurate picture of drug use as occurring mainly among the poor. [14] IV. POVERTY DIMINUTION/REDUCTION Holistic Approach Perhaps a more effective approach to reducing poverty would use the concept of empowering individuals to create value for themselves and for others. A holistic approach would focus on providing and strengthening all five of the necessary primary resources of motivation, knowledge, enterprise, health, and security. Much of what has been covered so far deals in one way or another with some of these primary resources but not in the context of a complete approach.

If societies and their governments have any practical and moral obligation to individuals it is to help empower them to create value for themselves and for others. The importance of individual self-motivation cannot be overestimated and in different societies it is either culturally reinforced or culturally retarded. Through delayed gratification and intermittent rewards, the belief must be reinforced that persistence and constant effort will ultimately yield personal benefit and self worth. Knowledge is the sum of education, training, experience, and associations.

Education is the key to expanding the awareness of individuals as to what they do not know and teaching them where and how to find out. Enterprises are the vehicles that provide the resources with which individuals create value. Either the individual creates value in someone else’s enterprise or he creates his own enterprise. [15] [14] Encarta Poverty definicion. Encarta. msn. com. Retrieved 2010-10-24. [15] Walsh, Julia A. , and Kenneth S. Warren. 1980. Selective primary health care: An interim strategy for disease control in developing countries. Social Science & Medicine.

Part C: Medical Economics 14 (2):145-163. Economic liberalization Trade liberalization increases the total surplus of trading nations. Remittances sent to poor countries, such as India, are sometimes larger than foreign direct investment and total remittances are more than double aid flows from OECD countries. Foreign investment and export industries helped fuel the economic expansion of fast growing Asian nations. However, trade rules are often unfair as they block access to richer nations’ markets and ban poorer nations from supporting their industries.

Processed products from poorer nations, in contrast to raw materials, get vastly higher tariffs at richer nations’ ports. A University of Toronto study found the dropping of duty charges on thousands of products from African nations because of the African Growth and Opportunity Act was directly responsible for a “surprisingly large” increase in imports from Africa. However, Chinese textile and clothing exports have encountered criticism from Europe, the United States and some African countries. [16] Good institutions

Efficient institutions that are not corrupt and obey the rule of law make and enforce good laws that provide security to property and businesses. Efficient and fair governments would work to invest in the long-term interests of the nation rather than plunder resources through corruption. Researchers at UC Berkeley developed what they called a “Wateriness scale” which measures aspects of bureaucracies and governments Max Weber described as most important for rational-legal and efficient government over 100 years ago.

Comparative research has found that the scale is correlated with higher rates of economic development. [16] Post Store (2006-04-03). “Saving millions for just a few dollars”. Washingtonpost. com. Retrieved 2010-10-24. With their related concept of good governance World Bank researchers have found much the same: Data from 150 nations have shown several measures of good governance (such as accountability, effectiveness, rule of law, low corruption) to be related to higher rates of economic development. The United Nations Development Program published a report in April 2000 hich focused on good governance in poor countries as a key to economic development and overcoming the selfish interests of wealthy elites often behind state actions in developing nations. The report concludes that “Without good, reliance on trickle-down economic development and a host of other strategies will not work. ” [17] [17] Evans, Peter, and James E. Rauch. 1999. “Bureaucracy and Growth: A Cross-National Analysis of the Effects of ‘Weberian’ State Structures on Economic Growth. ” American Sociological Review, 64:748-765. V.

CONCLUSION The main problem in our country nowadays is poverty. Many experts made a research on how to solve it. Most in the community of the Philippines are graving. But sad to say that until now it is still in the stage of calamity. Poverty happens everywhere. They think cities may offer them a better-off living. They think they’ll be much better off living in the cities than in their own villages, which only offer them natural resources. Being rich and having a great sum of money instantly are often the cause of massive exodus.

What happens later is beyond their expectations; they become jobless, homeless, and the worse impact is that they are unable to return to their villages for they don’t even have money to return. Most poor people who battle hunger deal with chronic undernourishment and vitamin or mineral deficiencies, which result in stunted growth, weakness and heightened susceptibility to illness. Poor children are the most prone to this and are often the victims to malnutrition, deficiencies, diseases and ultimately deaths caused by hunger.

The persons who are in the position must have enough knowledge about the solutions on the problem. They should make a step by step process to ensure the proper on the global major problem. BIBLIOGRAPHY C. S. Lewis, “The Jesus I Never Knew” by Philip Yancey, (Michigan: Zondervan Grand Rapids, 1995), p. 111 Kaleen Alejandro, Poverty in the Philippines, Politics and Government (Philippines: www. oppapers. com, 2010), p. 4 Tricia Ellis-Christensen, What is Poverty? , Poverty Line (United States: www. geekwise. com, 2003), p. Theodore Dalrymple, What is Poverty? , (England: www. cityjournal. org, 1999), p. 2 The Library of Congress Country Studies, “Philippines Extent Poverty”, CIA World Fact book, (Philippines: www. photius. com, 2004) Kerbo, Harold. , Social Stratification and Inequality, Class Conflict in Historical, Comparative, and Global Perspective. (New York: McGraw-Hill, 2006), p. 98 Michael Blastland. “Just what is poor? “, BBC NEWS, (http://news. bbc. co. uk/1/hi/magazine/8177864. stm, 2008) Smith, Stephen C.  Ending Global Poverty: a guide to what works, (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005), p. 25 Dr. Tony Walsh, “Causes of poverty”, MSU Women and International Development. (USA: GDRC compilation of articles on causes of poverty, 2002), p. 101 Parsons, “Evolutionary and Comparative Perspectives”. Englewood Cliffs. (New Jersey: Prentice-Hall Talcott, Societies, 2004), p. 62 Huston, A. C. , “Children in Poverty”, Child Development and Public Policy. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991), p. 45 Atkins, M. S. , McKay, M. , Talbott, E. , & Arvantis, P. (1996). DSM-IV diagnosis of conduct disorder and oppositional defiant disorder: Implications and guidelines for school mental health teams,” School Psychology Review, 25, 274-283. Citing: Bell, C. C. , & Jenkins, E. J. (1991). “Traumatic stress and children,” Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved, 2, 175-185. Fareed Zakaria (2008-09-20). “How to spread democracy”. (Newsweek. com. Retrieved 2010-10-24), p. 6 Encarta Poverty definicion. Encarta. msn. com. Retrieved 2010-10-24. Walsh, Julia A. , and Kenneth S. Warren. 1980. Selective primary health care: An interim strategy for disease control in developing countries.

Social Science & Medicine. Part C: Medical Economics 14 (2):145-163. Post Store (2006-04-03). “Saving millions for just a few dollars”. Washingtonpost. com. Retrieved 2010-10-24. Evans, Peter, and James E. Rauch. 1999. “Bureaucracy and Growth: A Cross-National Analysis of the Effects of ‘Weberian’ State Structures on Economic Growth. ” American Sociological Review, 64:748-765. Lipa City National Science High School Lipa City POVERTY: THE ABUNDANCE OF LACK By: Sarah Jean B. Cortes A Research Paper in English IV Presented to Mrs. Ophelia Ticala March 2011

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