(b) (a) Conservative task (b) Compensatory task

(b) Conflict theory

(c) Evaluation apprehension theory

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(d) The theory of diffusion of responsibility

(e) Persuasion and leadership theory

2. Which theory of risky shift phenomenon rests on the assumption that individuals who make initially risky decisions tend to be more persuasive and influential in the group setting and may become de facto leaders of the group?

(a) Persuasion and leadership theory

(b) The cultural value of riskiness

(c) Diffusion of responsibility

(d) Theory of polarization

(e) None of the above

3. Which explanation of risk shifting assume that risk is something that is valued by members of our society?

(a) Cultural value of riskiness

(b) Persuasion and leadership theory

(c) Diffusion of responsibility

(d) Theory of polarization

(e) None of the above

4. Which concept encompasses shifts in the direction of both greater riskiness and greater conservatism?

(a) Persuasion

(b) Diffusion

(c) Polarization

(d) Group think

(e) None of the above

5. When each person’s contribution is added to every other person’s, it is called:

(a) A Summative task

(b) An additive task

(c) Performance task summation

(d) Shifting of tasks

(e) None of the above

6. Which task calls for a single choice among several alternatives, one of which is right and others wrong?

(a) Conservative task

(b) Compensatory task

(c) Disjunctive task

(d) Additive task

(e) Conjuctive task

7. Which task cannot be divided into parts, the abilities of the individuals in the group cannot be determined and the kind of errors each individual has a tendency to make can be assumed to cancel each other out?

(a) Additive tasks

(b) Disjunctive tasks

(c) Conjuctive tasks

(d) Compensatory tasks

(e) None of the above

8. In which type of task, the group can make a product that is no better than the one the least competent person in the group can make?

(a) Additive tasks

(b) Disjunctive tasks

(c) Compensatory tasks

(d) Conjuctive task

(e) None of the above

9. In a group, each individual should devise a solution of his own and the statistical average of all solutions should be used as the group’s final judgement. What type of task it is?

(a) Conjuctive task

(b) Disjunctive task

(c) Compensatory task

(d) Additive task

(e) None of the above

10. “Group think” refers to the deterioration of mental efficiency, reality testing and moral judgement that results from:

(a) Out-group pressures

(b) Gregariousness

(c) Sociability

(d) In-group pressures

(e) None of the above

11. The very term “group think” was developed by a social psychologist in the early 1970s, who is he?

(a) Irving Janis

(b) Forsyth

(c) Hill

(d) Laughlin

(e) Barth

12. Sometimes individuals act to protect the group from divergent or contradictory information. What are these individuals called according to Janis?

(a) Safeguards

(b) Brainguards

(c) Mindguards

(d) Bodyguards

(e) None of the above

13. When the quantity and quality of information available to the group are increased:

(a) The phenomenon of ‘groupthink’ can be avoided

(b) The phenomenon of ‘choice shift’ can be avoided

(c) The phenomenon of ‘risky shift can be avoided

(d) The phenomenon of “diffusion or respon­sibility” can be avoided

(e) None of the above

14. The first study on “Collective Behaviour” was done by the French Sociologist:

(a) D. Forsyth

(b) A. Zander

(c) I. Janis

(d) Gustav LeBon

(e) None of the above

15. The crowd behaviour is homogeneous and normal social restraints are dropped as the “group mind” takes control. According to Gustav LeBon (1895), the mechanism by which this occurs is:

(a) Group Dynamics

(b) Groupthink

(c) Group Process

(d) Contagion

(e) Group Behaviour

16. In deindividuation, self-awareness is:

(a) Reduced

(b) Increased

(c) Constant

(d) Fascinating

(e) None of the above

17. Deindividuation is a potential cause of:

(a) Regression

(b) Compensation

(c) Jealousy

(d) Aggression

(e) None of the above

18. Research evidences (e.g., Prentice-Dunn and Rogers, 1983) suggest that increasing the individuation of members of groups and other uniformed organizations may act to decrease the incidence of:

(a) Suicide

(b) Regression

(c) Aggression

(d) Strike

(e) None of the above

19. Deindividuation theory (Diener 1980, Zim- bardo, 1969) is a recent formulation of:

(a) Contagion theory

(b) Aggression theory

(c) Persuasion and Leadership theory

(d) Distraction and Conflict theory

(e) Polarization theory

20. Which theory of collective behaviour reveals that participation in large crowds reduces concerns about being evaluated by others and about maintaining a positive image?

(a) Aggression theory

(b) Distraction and Conflict theory

(c) Deindividuation theory

(d) Polarization theory

(e) None of the above

21. Which approach views that crowds begin with heterogeneous individuals who do not necessarily share similar motivation and be­haviour?

(a) Contagion theory

(b) Emergent norm theory

(c) Distraction and Conflict theory

(d) Deindividuation theory

(e) None of the above

22. The “emergent norm theory” was first deve­loped by:

(a) Turner and Killian (1972)

(b) Collins and Guetzkow (1964)

(c) Wallach, Kogan and Burt (1967)

(d) Lamm and Myers (1978)

(e) None of the above

23. The laboratory experiments conducted by Mann, Newton and Innes supported:

(a) Contagion theory

(b) Distraction and Conflict theory

(c) Deindividuation theory

(d) Polarization theory

(e) None of the above

24. Conformity arises out of:

(a) Groupthink

(b) Group Polarization

(c) Cultural Vaine

(d) Group pressure

(e) Choice shift

25. “The essence of conformity in distinction to uniformity or conventionality is the yielding to group pressures.”

Who have given the above statement?

(a) Wallach and Kogan (1964)

(b) Vinokur and Burnstein (1974)

(c) Kretchetal. (1962)

(d) Lamni and Myers (1978)

(e) Wolosin and Mynatt (1975)

26. When an individual actively opposes the group pressures, it is called:

(a) Polarization

(b) Groupthink

(c) Choice shift

(d) Counterformity

(e) None of the above

27. The opposite of conformity is:

(a) Fluctuation

(b) Diffusion

(c) Counterformity

(d) Distraction

(e) None of the above

28. The research evidences relating to conformity have shown individual differences in:

(a) Conformity Proneness

(b) Conformity Span

(c) Conformity Status

(d) Role of Conformity

(e) None of the above

29. Secord (1974) and Backman (1978) have tried to explain conformity and conventionality on the basis of:

(a) Social loafing

(b) Polarization

(c) Choice Shifts

(d) Exchange theory

(e) Diffusion of Responsibility

30. The concept of “group locomotion” indicates the movement towards the:

(a) Status

(b) Role

(c) Norm

(d) Goal

(e) None of the above

31. The concept of “Reference group” was first used by:

(a) Hyman (1942)

(b) Fruitt (1971)

(c) Brown (1965)

(d) Forsyth (1983)

(e) Barth (1981)

32. “In its broadest sense, group structure refers to a more or less stabilised system of independent relationships (status and role) among individuals according to their respective contributions to interaction towards a common goal.” Who has given the above definition of group structure?

(a) Kalika

(b) Kautilya

(c) Akolkar

(d) Sherif and Sherif

(e) Kretch and Crutchfield

33. When persons with common motives interact with each other for a fairly long time:

(a) A group will emerge

(b) A mob will emerge

(c) An audience will emerge

(d) A class will emerge

(e) None of the above.

34. Informal groups can arise only through the interaction of persons with:

(a) Cotpmon motives

(b) Common goals

(c) Common Status

(d) Common norm

(e) None of the above

35. Informal groups are:

(a) Static

(b) Hapahzard

(c) Disorganised

(d) Transitory

(e) None of the above

36. Which theory of group behaviour is actually an application of certain economic principles to the interpersonal relations that come across in small groups?

(a) Evaluation apprehension theory

(b) Distraction theory

(c) Exchange theory

(d) Conflict theory

(e) None of the above

37. In economics, money is the criterion of judging satisfaction in term of profit and loss. But in interpersonal situations, the criterion of exchange is:

(a) Social disapproval

(b) Social conformity

(c) Social status

(d) Social approval

(e) None of the above

38. Four concepts are basic to exchange theory of group behaviour and these are:

(a) Reward, Punishment, Reinforcement and Cost

(b) Reward, Punishment, Outcome and Cost

(c) Punishment, Reinforcement, Outcome and Reward

(d) Reward, Cost, Outcome and Comparison level

(e) None of the above

39. Research evidences of Foa indicated that the particularist resources are likely to be ex­changed for:

(a) Universalistic resources

(b) Human resources

(c) Animal resources

(d) Social resources

(e) None of the above

40. Wheel type of group structure represents:

(a) An authoritarian or autocratic type of organization

(b) Democratic type of organization

(c) The peer group

(d) Social group

(e) None of the above

41. The circle type of group structure represents:

(a) Democratic type of organization

(b) Autocratic type of organization

(c) Authoritarian type of Organization

(d) Peer groups

(e) None of the above

42. Some social psychologists, after conducting a series of experiments indicated that indi­viduals in some group situations are more daring (i.e., willing to take more risks) after group discussions than they were before such discussions. This phenomenon is known as:

(a) Danger shift

(b) Difficulty shift

(c) Choice shift

(d) Risky shift

(e) Responsibility shift

43. Mintz considers competitive situation to be analogous to a:

(a) Panic situation

(b) Jealous situation

(c) Problematic situation

(d) Conflict situation

(e) None of the above

44. Taking the psychological point into consi­deration, a social group always possesses:

(a) A contour

(b) A shape

(c) A structure

(d) A size

(e) None of the above

45. Family is a/an:

(a) Secondary group

(b) Primary group

(c) Formal group

(d) Peer group

(e) Informal group

46. There are some groups on which members do not rely solely for satisfaction of their needs. These groups are known as:

(a) Primary groups

(b) Secondary groups

(c) Formal groups

(d) Informal groups

(e) None of the above

47. In cohesive groups, conformity is:

(a) Low

(b) Negligible

(c) High

(d) A fluctuating point

(e) None of the above

48. A position in a hierarchy of social rank is known as:

(a) Role

(b) Norm

(c) Goal

(d) Status

(e) None of the above

49. Who did useful researches on group’s decision-making process during World War II?

(a) Kautilya

(b) K.N. Jha

(c) Kretch and Crutchfield

(d) Kurt Lewin

(e) Sigmund Freud

50. Social groups have:

(a) A haphazard structure

(b) A dynamic structure

(c) A definite structure

(d) No definite structure

(e) None of the above

51. In Social Psychology, Culture is:

(a) An organized pattern of beliefs and habits

(b) A collection of religious rituals

(c) An artistic accomplishment and talent

(d) A system of polished manners and outfit

(e) None of the above

52. The movement or shift from one status position to another in a given social space or system of stratification is known as:

(a) Social mobility

(b) Marginality

(c) Cultural hybrid

(d) Group dynamics

(e) None of the above

53. When a person has already dissociated himself from his “in group” and is not fully accepted in his out-group, he is known as:

(a) Cultural hybrid

(b) Marginal

(c) Leader

(d) Sociologist

(e) None of the above

54. At the individual level, marginality leads to:

(a) Dual personality

(b) Multiple personality

(c) Single personality

(d) Personality Disorder

(e) None of the above

55. In a society, where more than one structure exists simultaneously, either in parallel or overlapping form, social mobility becomes:

(a) A more complex process

(b) A very simple process

(c) A dynamic process

(d) A very haphazard process

(e) None of the above

56. Social psychology began with the study of:

(a) Culture

(b) Society

(c) Groups

(d) Status

(e) None of the above

57. The exchange of meaning and mutual influence is known as:

(a) Correspondence

(b) Symbol

(c) Words

(d) Communication

(e) Speech

58. A group that is not organized is called a/an:

(a) Informal group

(b) Formal group

(c) Primary group

(d) Secondary group

(e) None of the above

59. A social organization is a system of interrelated psychological groups formed to:

(a) Accomplish stated objectives

(b) Guard social prestige

(c) Honour social status

(d) Reveal cultural prejudices

(e) None of the above

60. The groups, membership of which is restricted to persons having specified charac­teristics, are called:

(a) Inclusive groups

(b) Exclusive groups

(c) Formal groups

(d) Informal groups

(e) None of the above

61. Generally, associations are called:

(a) Inclusive groups

(b) Formal groups

(c) Informal groups

(d) Exclusive groups

(e) None of the above

62. “Medical Association of India” is an illus­tration of:

(a) Inclusive group

(b) Formal group

(c) Exclusive group

(d) Informal group

(e) None of the above

63. Most exclusive groups are:

(a) Temporary

(b) Informal

(c) Recreational

(d) Formal

(e) None of the above

64. In which group, membership is open to all without any distinction?

(a) Exclusive group

(b) Formal group

(c) Inclusive group

(d) Informal group

(e) None of the above

65. “Amnesty International” is an example of:

(a) Inclusive group

(b) Exclusive group

(c) Formal group

(d) Informal group

(e) None of the above

66. In which type of groups, the positions and roles of group members are almost fixed?

(a) Informal groups

(b) Inclusive groups

(c) Formal groups

(d) None of the above

67. Social organizations are generally called:

(a) Informal groups

(b) Exclusive groups

(c) Inclusive groups

(d) Formal groups

(e) None of the above

68. The attraction of individual members towards the group is called:

(a) Group goal

(b) Group status

(c) Group role

(d) Group solidarity

(e) None of the above

69. Cohesiveness is generally determined by the intensity of the:

(a) “We feeling”

(b) “I feeling”

(c) “You feeling”

(d) “They feeling”

(e) None of the above

70. The ability of group members to accept one another and develop smooth and harmonious relations with one another is known as:

(a) Compatibility

(b) Cohesiveness

(c) Solidarity

(d) Faithfulness

(e) None of the above

71. The morale of a highly cohesive group is usually:

(a) High

(b) Low

(c) Neutral

(d) Zero

(e) None of the above

72. The social behaviour that does not follow an organized pattern of convention and expectations is called:

(a) Mob behaviour

(b) Crowd behaviour

(c) Collective behaviour

(d) Haphazard behaviour

(e) Disorganized behaviour

73. Identification with the group and the feeling of being accepted by that group is known as:

(a) Belongingness

(b) Solidarity

(c) Cohesiveness

(d) Attachment

(e) None of the above

74. The social force which keeps the group together is called:

(a) Group belongingness

(b) Group attachment

(c) Group cohesiveness

(d) Group status

(e) None of the above

75. The congregation of people in close proximity who share some common interest is popularly known as:

(a) Group

(b) Mob

(c) Crowd

(4) Collection

(e) None of the above

76. The tendency of an individual to regard his own group or culture as superior and to look down upon other groups or culture as inferior is called:

(a) Ethnocentrism

(b) Prejudice

(c) Attitude

(d) Jealousy

(e) None of the above

77. Irrational and excessive preoccupation with one’s self is called:

(a) Self-involvement

(b) Ethnocentrism

(c) Narcissism

(d) Egocentricity

(e) None of the above

78. The congregation of individuals who are in independent relationship with one another sharing common norms of behaviour and attitude is known as:

(a) Mob

(b) Crowd

(c) Audience

(d) Group

(e) None of the above

79. When a group is not organized, it is called:

(a) An informal group

(b) A formal group

(c) An inclusive group

(d) All of the above

(e) None of the above

80. The process whereby the power of the ruling group becomes valid in the eyes of both rulers and ruled is called:

(a) Organization

(b) Institution

(c) Legitimation

d) Systematization

(e) None of the above

81. A primary group composed of individuals who are closely alike in age and interests is known as:

(a) Secondary group

(b) Formal group

(c) Informal group

(d) Peer group

(e) None of the above

82. The shared convictions about the pattern of behaviour that are appropriate or inappro­priate for the members of the group are called:

(a) Status

(b) Roles

(c) Norms

(d) References

(e) None the above

83. School age is the period when intelligence tests are widely applied are their results are more:

(a) Appreciating

(b) Reliable

(c) Confusing

(d) None of the above

84. The worth of a person as estimated by a group is known as:

(a) Social role

(b) Social prestige

(c) Social status

(d) Social reference

(e) None of the above

85. The area of social psychology concerned with small-group behaviour is known as :

(a) Group dynamics

(b) Group behaviour

(c) Group theory

(d) Group status

(e) None of the above

86. Reference groups can provide both explicit and implicit:

(a) Reference schedules

(b) Conformity behaviour

(c) Conformity pressure

(d) Diversity pressure

(e) None of the above

87. Behaviour in groups often evolves into re­gular, stable patterns which are known as:

(a) Group status

(b) Group role

(c) Group prestige

(d) Group structure

(e) None of the above

88. The behaviour that is associated with and expected of individuals in a position is known as:

(a) Status

(b) Prestige

(c) Norm

(d) Role

(e) Reference

89. The various roles played by group members are characterised by a status dimension, which indicates the evaluation of the role by:

(a) The group

(b) A subgroup within the group

(c) The fraction of the group

(d) Great men in the group

(e) None of the above

90. The group structure that emerges often reflects the larger physical and social environ­ment:

(a) In which group is located

(b) In which membership is assured

(c) In which leader is democratic

(d) In which leader is autocratic

(e) None of the above

91. The measure of how attractive a group is to its membership is known as:

(a) Group status

(b) Group cohesiveness

(c) Group role

(d) Group structure

(e) None of the above

92. A university student leader once said that a way must be found to increase college spirit. A social psychologist interpreted that the student leader was really talking about to look for a technique to change:

(a) Group cohesiveness

(b) Group attitude

(c) Group prejudice

(d) Group jealousy

(e) None of the above

93. The study of social facilitation was first done by:

(a) Robert Zahonc

(b) Miles and Finch

(c) Normal Triplett

(d) Bond and Titus

(e) Festinger and Schachter

94. The first study of social facilitation was done by Triplett in the year:

(a) 1887

(b) 1987

(c) 1897

(d) 1789

(e) 1798

95. In the late 1800s, Triplett’s “study of competition” was conceived as the study of:

(a) Social loafing

(b) Social distraction

(c) Social contact

(d) Social facilitation

(e) Social change

96. Normal Triplett began his research on social facilitation by studying the results of:

(a) Motorcar races

(b) Motorcycle races

(c) Scooter races

(d) Bicycle races

(e) None of the above

97. Who has told that the mere presence of others ought to be sufficient to bring about changes in performance, depending upon whether the response is well-learned or poorly learned?

(a) Robert Zajonc (1965)

(b) D. Cartwrightand A. Zander (1968)

(c) M.Shaw (1981)

(d) I. Steiner (1972)

(e) I. Jenis (1972)

98. Which theory of “Social facilitation” explained that when others are present but are not evaluating performance, social facilitation effects are reduced?

(a) Evaluation apprehension Theory

(b) Distraction Theory

(c) Conflict theory

(d) Theory of group polarization

(e) None of the above

99. The “evaluation apprehension theory” of social facilitation was first developed by:

(a) Janis (1972)

(b) Myers (1978)

(c) Cottrell (1972)

(d) Wilson (1975)

(e) Brown (1965)

100. Cottrell’s “evaluation apprehension theory” argues that it is not just the presence of others that affects performance, but the fact that:

(a) Others may be evaluating an individual’s performance

(b) The individual evaluates others perfor­mance

(c) Group goal is determined through per­formance

(d) Group status is determined through per­formance

(e) None of the above


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