(b) when the individual suffers from: (a)

(b) Colour Constancy

(c) Size Constancy

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(d) Brightness Constancy

(e) None of the above

2. Reversible goblet is a favourite demonstration of:

(a) A figure-ground reversal

(b) A focus-margin reversal

(c) A shape-size reversal

(d) A size-contour reversal

(e) None of the above

3. A simpler form of stroboscopic motion is :

(a) Psychokinesis

(b) Autokinetic Effect

(c) Phi-Phenomenon

(d) Illusion

(e) Hallucination

4. Empiricists (Barkeley, Locke) maintained that we learn our ways of perceiving through :

(a) Eyes

(b) Motivaton

(c) Experiene

(d) Learning

(e) None of the above

5. William James characterised the perception of an infant as a :

(a) Blooming buzzing confusion

(b) Haphazard Stimulation of nerve cells

(c) Stimulation of nerve cells in the eyes

(d) Stimulation of rods and cones

(e) None of the above

6. Behaviourists have:

(a) No theory of learning

(b) No theory of thinking

(c) No theory of memory

(d) No theory of perception

(e) None of the above

7. The process by which the eyes get prepared to see very dimlight is known as:

(a) Light Adaptation

(b) Dark Adaptation

(c) Brightness Adaptation

(d) Colour Adaptation

(e) None of the above

8. The partially colour blind people are known as:

(a) Blind

(b) Colour-blind

(c) Achromats

(d) Dichromats

(e) None of the above

9. Totally colour blind people are otherwise known as :

(a) Colour-blind

(b) Achromats

(c) Monochromats

(d) Dichromats

(e) None of the above

10. The phenomenon of sifting from one picture to another is known as :

(a) Retina Rivalry

(b) Eyes Rivalry

(c) Attention Rivalry

(d) Perception Rivalry

(e) None of the above

11. When the lens cannot bulge out to the extent necessary due to muscular defects, the individual suffers from:

(a) Double Vision

(b) Astigmatism

(c) Myopia

(d) Farsightedness

(e) None of the above

12. Due to the irregularities in the formation of the lens or the cornea, the object viewed will be partly clear and partly blurred. This occurs when the individual suffers from:

(a) Astigmatism

(b) Colour-blindness

(c) Distraction

(d) Ratinal Disparity

(e) None of the above

13. The length of car number has reference to:

(a) Shifting of Attention

(b) Distraction

(c) Span of Attention

(d) Focus and Margin

(e) Focus of Consciousness

14. Sensations of movement from inside our bodies are called:

(a) Proprioception

(b) Perception

(c) Interoception

(d) Sensation

(e) Attention

15. Sensation increases by a constant amount each time the stimulus is doubled. This is called:

(a) Lewin-Zeigamik Effect

(b) Lewin-Prentice Effect

(c) Mallinoswki Law

(d) Webber-Fechner Law

(e) None of the above

16. The experiments which tell us about the relationship between the intensity of stimulus and the consequent changes in the intensity of sensation are included in :

(a) Psychoanalysis

(b) Gestalt Psychology

(c) Parapsychology

(d) Psychophysics

(e) None of the above

17. The study on the Zulu tribes of Africa revealed that the Zulu individuals would be less susceptible to the:

(a) Figure-Ground Phenomenon

(b) Zollner Illusion

(c) Ponzo illusion

(d) Muller-Lyer Illusion

(e) None of the above

18. A complete change of vitreous humour occurs approximately once in:

(a) Every four hours

(b) Every three hours

(c) Every two hours

(d) Every one hour

(e) None of the above

19. The theory of colour perception which seems to be the most acceptable one today is called the:

(a) Retinex Theory

(b) Perspective Theory

(c) Confusion Theory

(d) Young-Helmholtz Theory

(e) None of the above

20. Who developed the ‘Retinex Theory” of colour perception?

(a) Thomas Young

(b) Hermann Von Helmholtz

(c) Edward Herring

(d) Edwin Land

(e) None of the above

21. Who received Nobel Prize for his research on the mechanisms of the cochlea?

(a) Snyder

(b) Pronko

(c) VonBekesy

(d) Stratton

(e) Turnbull

22. The condition of night-blindness is a conse­quence of:

(a) Rhodopsin deficiency in rods

(b) Defective rods

(c) Defective Cones

(d) Defective Retina

(e) None of the above

23. As compared with cones, rods appear to be more sensitive to:

(a) Longer Wavelengths

(b) Any wavelengths

(c) Both shorter and longer wavelengths

(d) Shorter wavelengths

(e) None of the above

24. The alteration in the comparative sensitivity of the retinal apparatus which accompanies change in the level of light energy is known as:

(a) Purkinje Effect

(b) Dark Adaptation

(c) Scotopic Vision

(d) Visual Acuity

(e) None of the above

25. An increase in sensitivity of retina owing to absence of stimulation in darkness is known as:

(a) Dark Adaptation

(b) Scotopic Vision

(c) Visual Acuity

(d) Photopic Vision

(e) None of the above

26. The decrease in sensitivity of the eye which occurs on account of its stronger stimulation is known as:

(a) Light Adaptation

(b) Photopic Vision

(c) Scotopic Vision

(d) Visual Acuity

(e) None of the above

27. In cone adaptation experiment, test field is strictly limited to the:

(a) Cone-free fovea

(b) Cornea

(c) Retina

(d) Rod-free fovea

(e) None of the above

28. Reaction to powerful light, primarily by cones, is called:

(a) Photopic Vision

(b) Scotopic Vision

(c) Colourless Vision

(d) Visual Acuity

(e) None of the above

29. Visual reaction of the dark adapted eye to very feeble light is called :

(a) Photopic Vision

(b) Scotopic vision

(c) Visual Acuity

(d) Colourless Vision

(e) None of the above

30. Visual angle varies inversely with:

(a) Acuity

(b) Light

(c) Brightness

(d) Length of cones

(e) Length of rods

31. Ability to discriminate fine differences in visual detail or visual sharpness is otherwise known as:

(a) Photopic Vision

(b) Scotopic Vision

(c) Visual Acuity

(d) Colourless Vision

(e) None of the above

32. Intensity multiplied by its duration brings about a constant perceptual effect. Let “I” stands for light intensity and “T” for time or duration, then IXT=C, where “C” is constant perceptual effectiveness. This above principle is called:

(a) Roscoe-Bunsen Law

(b) Hess and Polt Law

(c) Evans Principle

(d) Landis Principle

(e) None of the above

33. Cases of yellow-blue colour blindness are:

(a) Maximum

(b) Exceedingly Rare

(c) Mostly found in children

(d) Mostly found in women

(e) Mostly found in men

34. “Interest is latent attention and attention is interest in action.” This statement deals with the:

(a) Objective determinants of attention

(b) Span of attention

(c) Subjective determinants of attention

(d) Shifting of attention

(e) None of the above

35. “It is not a different process; it is just attention to irrelevant stimuli that are not a part of the main assigned task.” Then what is it?

(a) Distraction

(b) Shifting of Attention

(c) Span of attention

(d) Involuntary Attention

(e) Voluntary Attention

36. Simultaneous focussing on two separate activities is otherwise known as:

(a) Span of attention

(b) Shifting of attention

(c) Division of attention

(d) Distraction

(e) None of the above

37. When familiar large objects look smaller than they are known to be, they are regarded as being at a distance. This is an instance of what is called:

(a) Visual Acuity

(b) Monocular Parallax

(c) Linear Perspective

(d) Scotopic Vision

(e) Pliotopic Vision

38. Movement Parallax is a monocular cue of distance or depth and for this reason it is also called:

(a) Visual Acuity

(b) Monocular parallax

(c) Linear Perspective

(d) Scotopic vision

(e) Photopic Vision

39. Certain alterations in the colour of objects occur depending upon their relative distances from the observer. For this reason, distant hills look blue on account of the light rays travelling through haze. This illustrates:

(a) Linear Perspective

(b) Monocular Parallax

(c) Aerial Perspective

(d) Visual Acuity

(e) Scotopic Vision

40 A set of depth cues of the nature of some sort of arrangement of proportional rise and fall in compactness of de signs which is related to perspectives is called:

(a) Rods

(b) Cones

(c) Gradients

(d) Perspectives

(e) None of the above

41. The apparent displacement of an object result­ing from an actual change of observer’s position is known as:

(a) Parallax

(b) Acuity

(c) Scotopic Vision

(d) Photopic Vision

(e) None of the above

42. The phenomenon of “induced movement” occurs when there is some real movement which is attributed to:

(a) A right objects

(b) A real object

(c) A wrong object

(d) A substitute object

(e) None of the above

43. “It has been said that beauty is in the eye of the beholder”—With what factors of perception this statement deals?

(a) Objective Factors

(b) Figure and Ground

(c) Phi-phenomenon

(d) Functional Factors

(e) None of the above

44. According to Woodworth (1938), the first systematic experiment that attempted to measure the span of apprehension was carried out by:

(a) Jevons

(b) Paulham

(c) Jastrow

(d) Cairnes

(e) Hersey

45. The first experiment to measure span of attention (apprehension) was designed by:

(a) Coren and Porac in 1979

(b) Coren and Girgus in 1978

(c) Jevons in 1871

(d) Watkins in 1973

(e) None of the above

46. Who was/were the Subject (S) in Jevon’s first experiment on span of apprehension?

(a) Boys from different SES

(b) Girls from different SES

(c) A friend of Jevons

(d) Jevons himself

(e) The wife of Jevons

47. The first person to document the existence of the sensory register and to explore its pro­perties was:

(a) George Sperling (1960)

(b) Paulham (1887)

(c) Cairnes (1891)

(d) Hersey (1936)

(e) O’comer (1958)

48. From his experiments of sensory register, Sperling suggested that there is some visual trace available to the Subject that prolongs the life of the image. He calls this visual trace as the:

(a) Sensory Information Centre

(b) Perceptual Information Centre

(c) Attending Information Centre

(d) Apprehension Information Centre

(e) None of the above

49. In 1976, Neisser introduced a term for “Sensory Information Store.” That term is called as:

(a) Focus

(b) Margin

(c) Prepotency

(d) Icon

(e) Extensity

50. When tachistoscope exposures are short and there is no post exposure masking field, we can be fairly sure that the Subject is actually reading the stimulus:

(a) From the icon rather than from the visual image itself

(b) From the image

(c) From the short-term memory storage

(d) From the long-term memory storage

(e) None of the above

51. A basis on which one stream of information can be segregated and attended to while others can be ignored is known as:

(a) Basilar Membrane

(b) Cochlea

(c) Tympanic Membrane

(d) Channel

(e) Eustachian tube

52. The most important school of psychology which has contributed a lot toward perception is:

(a) Psychoanalysis

(b) Behaviouristic School

(c) Structuralistic School

(d) Gestalt Psychology

(e) Functionalistic School

53. Autokinetic movement does not occur if there is a fixed:

(a) Frame of Reference

(b) Illusion

(c) Vision

(d) Distance between stimulus and the eye

(e) None of the above

54. A stimulus is any change in external energy that activates:

(a) An effector organ

(b) A sense organ and its receptors

(c) A cell

(d) A neuron

(e) Any cell of the sense organs

55. Hue, saturation and brightness are the con­ventional terms which are used to characterise the attributes of:

(a) Brightness

(b) Colours

(c) Light

(d) Darkness

(e) None of the above

56. Vision in the ordinary ranges of daylight from fairly faint twilight up to the brightest blaze of the sun is called:

(a) Photopic Vision

(b) Scotopic Vision

(c) Autokinetic Effect

(d) Phi-phenomenon

(e) Illusion

57. The important part of the inner ear for hearing is the snail-shaped:

(a) Cochlea

(b) Round Window

(c) Oval Window

(d) Semicircular Canals

(e) Auditory Nerve

58. The most primitive and oldest feature of music is:

(a) Harmony

(b) Melody

(c) Rhythm

(d) Song

(e) None of the above

59. Phi-phenomenon is a form of:

(a) Stroboscopic Motion

(b) Photopic Vision

(c) Scotopic Vision

(d) Autokinetic Effect

(e) Illusion

60. Which one of the following is not a principle of Organization of Perception?

(a) The Law of Proximity

(b) The Law of Similarity

(c) The Law of Pragnaz

(d) The Law of Contrast

(e) None of the above

61. Alcohol is/an:

(a) Stimulant

(b) Sensory Stimulus

(c) Effective Stimulus

(d) Depressant

(e) None of the above

62. The name given to the cone pigments is:

(a) Idopsin

(b) Bipolar Cells

(c) Ganglian Cells

(d) Rhodopsin

(e) None of the above

63. Ishihara test is meant for testing:

(a) Visual Experience

(b) Principal complementary Colour

(c) Wavelengths

(d) Colour-blindness

(e) None of the above

64. Young-Helmholtz theory of colour vision can otherwise be called:

(a) Trichromatic Theory

(b) Opponent Process Theory

(c) Ladd-Franklin Theory

(d) Scientific Validity Theory

(e) None of the above

65. A continuous small tremor of the eyes is known as:

(a) Rod-Cone breaks

(b) Purkinje Effect

(c) Physiological Nystagmus

(d) Acuity

(e) None of the above

66. The eye is sensitive to wavelengths of light that range from about:

(a) 380 to about 760 nm

(b) 300 to about 500 nm

(c) 200 to about 300 nm

(d) 160 to about 200 nm

(e) None of the above

67. Different wavelengths produce the experience of different:

(a) Colours

(b) Brightness

(c) Hues

(d) Lights

(e) None of the above

68. The Scottish Philosopher Thomas Reid (1710- 1796) has first developed the distinction bet­ween:

(a) Sensation and Attention

(b) Attention and Perception

(c) Audition and Vision

(d) Sensation and Perception

(e) Vision and Recurrent Inhibition

69. Helmholtz’s theory of space perception cent­red around the concept of:

(a) Unconscious inference

(b) Conscious inference

(c) Recurrent Inhibition

(d) Mechanism of Vision

(e) The Static sense

70. RundolfLotze (1817-1881) assumed that mind is inherently capable of:

(a) Perceiving Space

(b) Perceiving Size

(c) Perceiving Depth

(d) Perceiving Colour

(e) Perceiving Brightness

71. Helmholtz’s treatment of perception is the extension of:

(a) Herring’s opponent-process theory

(b) Ladd-Franklin Theory

(c) Lotze’s local-sign theory

(d) Recurrent inhibition theory

(e) None of the above

72. Who defined apperception as the awareness of any conscious content that is clearly com­prehended or grasped?

(a) Ratliff

(b) E. B. Titchener

(c) J.B.Watson

(d) Wilmhelm Wundt

(e) Kurt Lewin

73. Harvey Carr defined perception as the cogni­tion of a present object in relation to:

(a) Recurrent Inhibition

(b) Some acts of adjustment

(c) Some acts of stimulation

(d) Simultaneous Contrast

(e) None of the above

74. Gestalt Psychology looks upon the world as:

(a) Psychophysical

(b) Psychological

(c) Physical

(d) Neuro-physiological

(e) Neurological

75. Which principle states that because Gestalten are isomorphic to stimulus patterns, they may undergo extensive changes without losing their identities?

(a) Simultaneous Contrast

(b) Recurrent Inhibition

(c) Transposition

(d) Phi-phenomenon

(e) Autokinetic Effect

76. “Memory is a dynamic process in which traces undergo progressive changes according to some principles of organization that govern original perception.”

This definition of memory was given by:

(a) Behaviourists

(b) Structuralists

(c) Functionalists

(d) Gestalt Psychologists

(e) Psychoanalysts

77. Who defined ‘perception’ as the process of maintaining contact with the world?

(a) Helmholtz

(b) Lorrin A. Riggs

(c) Herring

(d) Gibson

(e) None of the above

78. When the sense organs are oriented towards the environment and are actively seeking information, we call it—

(a) Obtained Perception

(b) Illusion

(c) Hallucination

(d) Attention

(e) Distraction

79. The perception which arises from the skin, nose, ears, eyes or other organs is called:

(a) Obtained Perception

(b) Illusion

(c) Hallucination

(d) Imposed Perception

(e) None of the above

80. The distinction between “Obtained and Imposed Perception” was brought out by:

(a) Helmholtz

(b) Herring

(c) Franklin

(d) Gibson

(e) Riggs

81. The gestalt concept of equilibrium is expres­sed by the law of:

(a) Similarity

(b) Proximity

(c) Continuity

(d) Pragnaz

(e) Good Figure

82. In 1915; Edgar Rubin introduced the idea of:

(a) Figure and Ground

(b) Phi-phenomenon

(c) Physiological Nystagmus

(d) Illusion

(e) Hallucination

83. The ‘Law of Closure’ reflects the idea of stri­ving for:

(a) Goodflgure

(b) Continuity

(c) Completion

(d) Good Contour

(e) None of the above

84. Which law of organization in perception has become a principle of temporal contiguity in the learning theory?

(a) The Law of Similarity

(b) The Law of Pragnaz

(c) The Law of Proximity

(d) The La of Good Figure

(e) None of the above

85. The contrast between a dynamic field and a mechine was brought out by:

(a) KurtKoffka

(b) Wertheimer

(c) KurtLewin

(d) W. G. Kohler

(e) Helmholtz

86. The Gestalt Psychologists learned their “Prin­ciples of Organization” from the study of:

(a) Perception

(b) Sensory Experience

(c) Attention

(d) Consciousness

(e) Insightful Learning

87. Reinforcing factors in perceptual organization are analogous to the:

(a) Reinforcement of a conditioned response

(b) The Law of Effect

(c) Both (a) and (b)

(d) The Law of Exercise

(e) None of the above

88. Wavelength is obtained by dividing the speed of the light by the:

(a) Frequency

(b) Brightness

(c) Illumination

(d) Colour

(e) None of the above

89. For constancy to operate in the world of normal objects, the more distant features must be:

(a) Perceptually expanded

(b) Clearly Visualised

(c) Projected in sufficient light

(d) Clearly Spaced

(e) None of the above

90. Outline or boundary of an object is called:

(a) Contour

(b) Figure

(c) Ground

(d) Brightness

(e) None of the above

91. Prolongation or renewal of a sensory expe­rience after the stimulus has ceased to affect the sense organ is called:

(a) After image

(b) Illusion

(c) Hallucination

(d) Autokinetic Effect

(e) Stroboscopic Motion

92. A familiar study on perception which has shown that the poor children overestimated the size of coins to a greater degree than wealthy children, was done by:

(a) Bruner and Goodman

(b) Osgood

(c) Dember

(d) Murray

(e) Mc Ginnis

93. Camouflage is the deliberate confusion of:

(a) Illusion and Hallucination

(b) Stroboscopic Motion

(c) Figure and Ground

(d) Autokinetic Effect

(e) Phi-phenomenon

94. The protective colouration of many animals is an example of:

(a) Figure and Ground

(b) Camouflage

(c) Reversible Figures

(d) Phi-phenomenon

(e) Autokinetic Effect

95. Sense Organs in the muscles, tendons and joints tell us about the position of our limbs and the state of tension in the muscles. They serve the sense called:

(a) Kinesthesis

(b) Transduction

(c) Vision

(d) Auditory Sense

(e) None of the above

96. The process of converting physical energy into nervous system activity is called:

(a) Transmission

(b) Nerve Impluse

(c) Inhibition

(d) Transduction

(e) None of the above

97. Receptor cells convert physical energy into an electric voltage or potential called:

(a) Receptor Potential

(b) Generator Potential

(c) Vestibular Sense

(d) Spike Potential

(e) None of the above

98. Whether it is the receptor potential itself or some other voltage, the electrical event that triggers nerve impulses is known as the:

(a) Spike Potential

(b) Generator Potential

(c) Receptor Potential

(d) Nerve Impulse

(e) None of the above

99 The entire range of wavelengths is called the:

(a) Electromagnetic Spectrum

(b) Visible Spectrum

(c) Photosensitive Area

(d) Blind Spot

(e) None of the above

100. The tendency to perceive a line that starts in one way as continuing in the same way is called the principle of:

(a) Proximity

(b) Similarity

(c) Closure

(d) Continuation

(e) None of the above


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