(b) each other (b) Opposite to each

(b) Future Experience

(c) Behaviour

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(d) Past Experience

(e) None of the above

502. The tendency to interpret events and experiences in terms of one’s own inner conditions and needs is known as:

(a) Egocentricism

(b) Centration

(c) Assimilation

(d) Accommodation

(e) None of the above

503. A young child was asked why the sun sets? Immediately the answer came “Because Johny must go to sleep.” Jean Piaget cited the above example to illustrate:

(a) Animism

(b) Accommodation

(c) Assimilation

(d) Egocentricism

(e) None of the above

504. In Indian mythology, mountains like the Himalayas, rivers like the Ganga and the Godavari are not only personified but raised to superhuman status. These are the examples of:

(a) Egocentncism

(b) Centration

(c) Animistic Thinking

(d) Personification

(e) None of the above

505. Very often, Children think that everything around them has a life similar to theirs. Tree, stones and doors all have lives for them. This is simply called as:

(a) Personification

(b) Assimilation

(c) Animistic Thinking

(d) Accommodation

(e) None of the above

506. Autism is an extension of:

(a) Animism

(b) Egocentricism

(c) Assimilation

(d) Accommodation

(e) None of the above

507. The autistic child is one whose thought process shows a total absence of any distinction between:

(a) Ego and the Environment

(b) Ego and Super ego

(c) Ego and Id

(d) Super ego and Id

(e) None of the above

508. Egocentricism is a major hindrance to:

(a) Prenatal Development

(b) Language Development

(c) Postnatal Development

(d) Cognitive Development

(e) None of the above

509. The stage of concrete operation continues from:

(a) Ages 7 to 12

(b) Ages 5 to 8

(c) Ages 3 to 9

(d) Ages 16 to 18

(e) Ages 0 to 4

510. From the ages 2 to 4, the child’s speech is:

(a) Intuitive

(b) Preconceptual

(c) Egocentric

(d) Concrete

(e) None of the above

511. Precoperational period is sometimes referred to as:

(a) Egocentric

(b) Concrete operations

(c) Preconceptual

(d) Secondary Circular Reaction

(e) None of the above

512. Assimilation and accommodation are:

(a) Complimentary to each other

(b) Opposite to each other

(c) Equal to each other

(d) Reversible

(e) None of the above

513. Which stage of cognitive development, according to Piaget, is the best period of problem solving behavior for children?

(a) Secondary Circular Reaction

(b) Tertiary Reaction

(c) Primary Circular Reaction

(d) Reflex

(e) None of the above

514. Following crying, the child makes explosive sounds commonly known as:

(a) Stuttering

(b) Slurring

(c) Stammering

(d) Cooing

(e) None of the above

515. Speech disorder refers to a serious defect in:

(a) Pronunciation

(b) Articulation

(c) Cooing

(d) Stammering

(e) None of the above

516. Socioeconomic Status (SES) of children influences vocabulary size but not:

(a) Syntactic development

(b) Grammatical development

(c) Verbal development

(d) Emotional development

(e) None of the above

517. Speech is the most effective form of:

(a) Communication

(b) Exchange of Ideas

(c) Art

(d) Sociability

(e) None of the above

518. Compared to girls, the mean length of sentences uttered by boys is:

(a) More

(b) Less

(c) Simpler

(d) Complex

(e) None of the above

519. The movements of the body or parts of it to convey meaning are known as:

(a) Gestures

(b) Symbols

(c) Postures

(d) Signs

(e) None of the above

520. Compared to boys, the mean length of sentences uttered by girls is:

(a) More

(b) Simpler

(c) Complex

(d) Less

(e) None of the above

521. Which skill in language development is learned by imitation?

(a) Pronounciation

(b) Spelling

(c) Reading

(d) Vocabulary

(e) None of the above

522. Thinking consists of the cognitive rearrange­ment or manipulation of both information from the environment and the symbols sto­red in:

(a) Short-term memory

(b) Long-term memory

(c) Unconscious

(d) Subconscious

(e) None of the above

523. The images used in thinking are abstractions and constructions based on information stored in:

(a) Short-term memory

(b) Unconscious

(c) Long-term memory

(d) Conscious

(e) Subconscious

524. The symbolic construction representing some common and general feature or features of objects or events is known as:

(a) Symbols

(b) Concepts

(c) Gestures

(d) Constructs

(e) None of the above

525. Heuristic are strategies or approaches to a problem which are usually based on:

(a) Future Experience

(b) Present Experience

(c) Past experience

(d) Temperament

(e) None of the above

526. The subgoal heuristic in the “Tower of Hanoi” problem may be called a/an:

(a) “Means-end Analysis”

(b) “End Analysis”

(c) “Way-finding Analysis”

(d) “Way for Analysis”

(e) None of the above

527. An “algorithm” is a set of rules which, if followed correctly, will guarantee:

(a) The formation of a concept

(b) The emergence of a new problem

(c) A solution to a problem

(d) The emergence of a peculiar response

(e) None of the above

528. Functional fixedness is an example of the hindering effects of habit and set on:

(a) Concept formation

(b) Discriminability

(c) Manipulation

(d) Problem Solving

(e) None of the above

529. The subgoal heuristic in the “Tower of Hanoi” problem might be called a “means- end analysis; each step leads closer to:

(a) The desired goal

(b) Solution

(c) Problem

(d) Response

(e) None of the above

530. Creative Thinking is said to proceed in five stages. These stages are:

(a) Preparation, Accommodation, Assimila­tion, Centration and Egocentricism

(b) Accommodation, Centration, Egocentri­cism, Incubation, Revision

(c) Preparation, Incubation, Illumination, Evaluation and Revision

(d) Incubation, Preparation, Revision, Accommodation and Centration

(e) None of the above

531. “Connotative meaning” is the emotional and evaluative meaning of a word or concept and it can be measured by means of the:

(a) Summated Ratings

(b) Social Distance

(c) Activity Wheel

(d) Semantic Differential

(e) None of the above

532. Dreams are bright examples of:

(a) Creative Thinking

(b) Directed Thinking

(c) Symbolic Thinking

(d) Autistic Thinking

(e) None of the above

533. Some thinking is highly private and may use symbols with very personal meanings. This type of thinking is popularly known as:

(a) Realistic Thinking

(b) Autistic Thinking

(c) Creative Thinking

(d) Directed Thinking

(e) None of the above

534. The mechanism of dream work which tends to constitute the various parts of the dream to a unified whole which can be assimilated by the general content of consciousness is called:

(a) Displacement

(b) Sublimation

(c) Secondary Elaboration

(d) Dramatization

(e) Condensation

535. According to Earnest Jones, Secondary elaboration is closely related to:

(a) Sublimation

(b) Rationalization

(c) Reaction Formation

(d) Condensation

(e) Dramatization

536. By having an idea of dream symbols, the manifest content of the dream is translated to the:

(a) Sublimation

(b) Latent Content

(c) Rationalization

(d) Secondary Elaboration

(e) None of the above

537. Alfred Adler has not viewed dreams as expressions of old desires and repressed wishes, but as means of reinforcing the dreamer’s:

(a) Personality

(b) Inferiority Complex

(c) Style of Life

(d) Superiority Complex

(e) None of the above

538. Those dreams which leave for the dreamer with a feeling that the dream has some future significance are called:

(a) Prophetic Dreams

(b) Premonitory Dreams

(c) Pradromic Dreams

(d) Collective Dreams

(e) Recurrent Dreams

539. Simple wishfulment dreams are common in:

(a) Old Men

(b) Children

(c) Old Women

(d) Young Women

(e) Young Men

540. The main activity of dream is to preserve:

(a) Sleep

(b) Health

(c) Sense of humour

(d) Repressed Desires

(e) None of the above

541. Contemporary understanding of the dream process however suggests that dreaming activity takes place in conjunction with the psychic pattern of Central Nervous System activation that characterise certain phases of the :

(a) Motivational Cycle

(b) Sleep Cycle

(c) Incentive cycle

(d) Learning cycle

(e) None of the above

542. Until the first half of the twentieth century, scientific study of dreams exclusively was the monopoly of:

(a) Psychoanalysis

(b) Behaviourism

(c) Structuralism

(d) Functionalism

(e) Gestalt Psychology

543. The easiest approach to the study of dreams is to consider the regressional function of sleep and dreams of:

(a) Young women

(b) Old men

(c) Adults

(d) Young children

(e) None of the above

544. According to Physiologists, dream is accompanied by:

(a) Galvanic skin response (GSR)

(b) Rapid Eye Movements (REMs)

(c) Emotional Trauma

(d) Psychic Pattern of Autonomic Nervous System

(e) None of the above

545. Freud’s theory of dreams was vividly described in his book:

(a) The Interpretation of Dreams

(b) Psychoanalysis

(c) Psychopathology of Everyday Life

(d) Personality

(e) None of the above

546. The part of a dream which is remembered and reportable is called:

(a) Latent Content

(b) Manifest Content

(c) Dream Work

(d) Dream Amnesia

(e) None of the above

547. The hidden content of dream which indicates the individual’s true wishes is called:

(a) Latent Content

(b) Wish Fulfillment

(c) Manifest Content

(d) Dream Work

(e) None of the above

548. Freud’s theory of dreams was vividly described through his book entitled “The Interpretation of Dreams” published in:

(a) 1910 A.D.

(b) 1920 A.D.

(c) 1900 A.D.

(d) 1940 A.D.

(e) 1950 A.D.

549. Poor memory of dreams is known as:

(a) Dream Phobia

(b) Hypochondria

(c) Dream Amnesia

(d) Delusion

(e) Illusion

550. The process analysing the contents of a dream to find out the unconscious motives of the dream is known as:

(a) Dream Analysis

(b) Dream Work

(c) Dream Content

(d) Dream Amnesia

(e) Delusion

551. Dream is the royal road to:

(a) Unconscious

(b) Conscious

(c) Subconscious

(d) Libido

(e) None of the above

552. Adler holds that the dream is a form of preparation for the:

(a) Future

(b) Past

(c) Present Situation

(d) Socialization

(e) None of the above

553. Who viewed that dream differs from waking life in degree, but not in kind?

(a) Alfred Adler

(b) Sigmund Freud

(c) Sullivan

(d) Horney

(e) None of the above

554. Who viewed – “It is the true that dream is a bridge that connects the problem which confronts the dreamer with his goal of attainment”?

(a) Alfred Adler

(b) C.G. Jung

(c) Sigmund Freud

(d) Horney

(e) None of the above

555. “Although the study of dream life paves the way to understanding, it does not auto­matically bestow a capacity to interpret dreams.” – Who has given this statement?

(a) Glover

(b) C.G. Jung

(c) Alfred Adler

(d) Karen Homey

(e) None of the above

556. A dream where the individual is unable to move which often ends in waking with horror is called:

(a) Kinesthetic Dream

(b) Paralytic Dream

(c) Collective Dream

(d) Prophetic Dream

(e) None of the above

557. The dreams which are generally found in neurotics are called:

(a) Paralytic Dreams

(b) Recurrent Dreams

(c) Premonitory Dreams

(d) Prophetic Dreams

(e) Pradromic Dreams

558. Very often two or more people have the same dream at approximately the same time. These dreams are called:

(a) Kinesthetic Dreams

(b) Paralytic Dreams

(c) Collective Dreams

(d) Recurrent Dreams

(e) Phophetic Dreams

559. The dreams which leave for the dreamer with a feeling that the dream has some future significance are known as:

(a) Premonitory Dreams

(b) Prophetic Dreams

(c) Pradromic Dreams

(d) Collective Dreams

(e) Paralytic Dreams

560. A dream is an attempt to relieve tension caused by:

(a) Regression

(b) Repression

(c) Sublimation

(d) Reaction Formation

(e) Projection

561. An unconscious mechanism by which the manifest content of dream is purposely centred elsewhere than upon the essential aspects is known as:

(a) Dramatization

(b) Condensation

(c) Secondary Elaboration

(d) Displacement

(e) None of the above

562. The mechanism through which the latent content expresses itself into manifest content is called:

(a) Wishfulfilment

(b) Dream Work

(c) Displacement

(d) Association

(e) None of the above

563. In the process of becoming conscious in the dream wishes have to be converted into more or less concrete visual images. This conversion of abstract ideas into concrete symbols constitutes what Freud regarded as:

(a) Symbolization

(b) Displacement

(c) Dramatization

(d) Conversion

(e) Projection

564. According to Freud, the process whereby the latent dream thoughts are expressed in terms of visual images is called the process of:

(a) Sublimation

(b) Dramatization

(c) Secondary Elaboration

(d) Displacement

(e) Condensation

565. The true meaning of the dream is concealed to cheat the ego by means of:

(a) Dramatization

(b) Sublimation

(c) Displacement

(d) Secondary Elaboration

(e) Condensation

566. The manifest dream content persistently portrays a present action or series of action mostly through the medium of visual imagery such as pictures through the procedures of:

(a) Displacement

(b) Sublimation

(c) Dramatization

(d) Secondary Elaboration

(e) Condensation


501. (d) 502. (a) 503. (d) 504. (c) 505. (c) 506. (b) 507. (a) 508. (d) 509. (a) 510. (c) 511. (c) 512. (a) 513. (b) 514. (d) 515. (a) 516. (b) 517. (a) 518. (b) 519. (a) 520. (a) 521. (a) 522. (b) 523. (c) 524. (b) 525. (c) 526. (a) 527. (c) 528. (d) 529. (a) 530. (c) 531. (d) 532. (d) 533. (b) 534. (c) 535. (b) 536. (b) 537. (c) 538. (b) 539. (b) 540. (a) 541. (b) 542. (a) 543. (d) 544. (b) 545. (a) 546. (b) 547. (a) 548. (c) 549. (c) 550. (a) 551. (a) 552. (a) 553. (a) 554. (a) 555. (a) 556. (b) 557. (b) 558. (c) 559. (a) 560. (b) 561. (d) 562. (b) 563. (c) 564. (b) 565. (a) 566. (d)