Psychology Question Bank – 832 MCQs on “Forgetting” – Part 4

(b) Harvey Carr

(c) Wilhelm Wundt

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(d) J. B. Watson

302. John Stuart Mill, James Mill’s son, did not accept the additive nature of mental mechanics and replaced it by the concept of:

(a) Mental Chemistry

(b) Mental Physics

(c) Mental Biology

(d) Mental Civics

303. Herbert Spencer considered “contiguity” and “similarly the fundamental binding principles of psychology. His Associationism had Darwinian flavour and was termed as the:

(a) Theory of Mechanism

(b) Theory of Evolutionary Association

(c) Theory of Civics

(d) Theory of Conduction

304. Who published his famous book “On Memory” in 1885?

(a) I. P. Pavlov

(b) J. S. Mill

(c) Charles Darwin

(d) Hermann Ebbinghaus

305. Nonsense syllables were used for the first time in memory experiments by:

(a) Hermann Ebbinghaus

(b) I. P. Pavlov

(c) E. L. Thorndike

(d) B. F. Skinner

306. Who derived the curve of forgetting which indicated that the rate of forgetting during the first hours after the original learning was high and then, it became very slow?

(a) B. F. Skinner

(b) Hermann Ebbinghaus

(c) E. L. Thorndike

(d) J. S. Mill

307. I. P. Pavlov was born in:

(a) Western Germany

(b) Central Russia

(c) United Kingdom

(d) United States of America

308. In 1904, who was awarded Nobel Prize for his brilliant work relating to glandular and neural factors in digestion?

(a) H. Ebbinghous

(b) I. P. Pavlov

(c) E. L. Thorndike

(d) B. F. Skinner

309. For E. L. Thorndike, the principles of con­nection were nothing but the principles of:

(a) Perception

(b) Learning

(c) Attention

(d) Memory

310. EL. Thorndike was a/an:

(a) Columbia Functionalist

(b) German Psychoanalyst

(c) American Structuralist

(d) American Behaviourist

311. Thorndike formulated his theory of learning which was strictly based upon principles of:

(a) Dissociation

(b) Association

(c) Distraction

(d) Interference

312. The book “Animal Intelligence: An Experimental Study of the Associative Process in Animals” was written by:

(a) E. L. Thorndike

(b) I.P. Pavlov

(c) J. B. Watson

(d) E. B. Titchener

313. According to Thorndike, the bond that held stimulus and response together was:

(a) Dissociation

(b) Association

(c) Personality

(d) Behaviour

314. According to Thorndike, which type of intelligence refers to the ability to deal with abstract materials like symbols, words and concepts?

(a) Abstract Intelligence

(b) Social Intelligence

(c) Mechanical Intelligence

(d) None of these

315. Social intelligence refers to the ability to deal with:

(a) Intelligence Quotient

(b) Personality

(c) Motivation

(d) Social relations

316. Which type of intelligence refers to ability to manipulate objects, tools and equipments?

(a) Social Intelligence

(b) Mechanical Intelligence

(c) Abstract Intelligence

(d) Intelligence Quotient

317. Thorndike became an important leader in the field of mental testing by propounding a new theory of:

(a) Attention

(b) Personality

(c) Intelligence

(d) Perception

318. The celebrated work was written by:

(a) LP. Pavlov

(b) E. L. Thorndike

(c) B. F. Skinner

(d) J. B. Watson

319. In collaboration with Raynor, J. B. Watson conducted his famous experiment on conditioning of fear responses on:

(a) Thompson

(b) Albert

(c) Tulving

(d) Stevens

320. In 1919, J. B. Watson adopted a meta­physical position that denied the existence of mind or consciousness. This was called:

(a) Radical Behaviourism

(b) Abstract Behaviourism

(c) Stimulant Behaviourism

(d) Standard Behaviourism

321. For Watson, psychology is a branch of natural science that studies:

(a) Human behaviour

(b) Experience

(c) Perception

(d) Intelligence

322. J.B. Watson has adopted the conditioned response technique from:

(a) Pavlov and Bekhterer

(b) Raynor and Skinner

(c) Wundt and Titchener

(d) Darwin and Erikson

323. Structuralists have tried to prove the existence of consciousness on the basis of:

(a) Physio-Social Effect

(b) Circular Conditioned Response

(c) Body-mind Relationship

(d) Introspective Data

324. Which principle states that all parts of brain are as important as the other and therefore, they are equally potential?

(a) Weber’s law

(b) Fechner’s Law

(c) Principle of Mass Action

(d) Principle of Equipotentiality

325. The book “Psychology of Human Conflict (1938) was written by:

(a) J. B. Watson

(b) E.R. Guthrie

(c) Max Wertheimer

(d) B. F. Skinner

326. E. R. Guthrie (1886-1959) was popularly known for his theory of:

(a) Contiguous Conditioning

(b) Conditioning Reflex

(c) Physiological Psychology

(d) Classical Conditioning

327. According to James, the unlearnt patterns of reacting is known as:

(a) Libido

(b) Instinct

(c) Motive

(d) Incentive

328. By advocating the doctrine of instinct, James was influenced by:

(a) J. B. Watson

(b) Darwin

(c) Wertheimer

(d) Wilhelm Wundt

329. According to James, self was equivalent to the concept of:

(a) Creativity

(b) Personality

(c) Ego

(d) Libido

330. James considered the concept of “pure ego” or “I” or self as a knower that did the functioning of:

(a) Knowing

(b) Reasoning

(c) Thinking

(d) Learning

331. James considered secondary memory as:

(a) Short term memory

(b) Long term memory

(c) Primary memory

(d) Abnormal memory

332. Who considered consciousness as purely personal?

(a) James

(b) Watson

(c) Kohler

(d) Koffka

333. James pointed out that consciousness is sensibly:

(a) Continuous

(b) Discontinuous

(c) Haphazard

(d) Unsystematic

334. According to James, the subject matter of psychology is the entire stream of:

(a) Consciousness

(b) Unconsciousness

(c) Subconsciousness

(d) Preconsciousness

335. The book “Hereditary Genius” was pub­lished, in 1869 and it contained the studies of individual differences in:

(a) Emotion

(b) Intelligence

(c) Creativity

(d) Personality

336. William James has been regarded as one important forerunner of:

(a) Functionalism

(b) Behaviourism

(c) Gestalt Psychology

(d) Structuralism

337. Harvey Carr may be more appropriately considered as the “developer” rather than “founder” of:

(a) Behaviourism

(b) Functionalism

(c) Gestalt Psychology

(d) Structuralism

338. In Columbia University, R. S. Woodworth developed a new system which was popularly known as:

(a) Dynamic Psychology

(b) Functional Psychology

(c) Behaviouristic Psychology

(d) Gestalt Psychology

339. Who pointed out “A psychology that attempts to give an accurate and systematic answer to the question “What do men do?” and “Why they do it”? Is called a:

(a) Gestalt Psychology

(b) Functional Psychology

(c) Behaviouristic Psychology

(d) Psychology of Introspection

340. A Functional Psychologist studies functional relationship between antecedent forces and:

(a) Unconsciousness

(b) Behaviour

(c) Ego

(d) Instinct

341. Who viewed that psychology is the study of mental activity or adaptive behaviour?

(a) Harvey A. Carr

(b) William James

(c) Charles Darwin

(d) J. B. Watson

342. Who published his famous book “On Memory” in 1885?

(a) J. B. Watson

(b) E. B. Titchener

(c) William James

(d) Hermann Ebbinghaus

343. Who was awarded Nobel Prize in 1904 for his brilliant work relating to glandular and neural factors in digestion?

(a) Max Wertheimer

(b) Harvey Carr

(c) I. P. Pavlov

(d) J.B. Watson

344. Which law of Thorndike stated about weakening or strengthening of a connection as a result of its consequence?

(a) Law of Effect

(b) Law of Exercise

(c) Law of Readiness

(d) Principles of Reflexology

345. E. L. Thorndike has emphasized upon ran­domness in learning because he considered it as a:

(a) Trial and Error Process

(b) Motivational Learning

(c) Latent Learning

(d) Unconscious Learning

346. Gestalt Psychologists criticised E. L. Thorn­dike as he considered animals as :

(a) Stupid

(b) Creative

(c) Intelligent

(d) Gifted

347. The doctrine of formal discipline was dis­carded by:

(a) J. B. Watson

(b) E. L. Thorndike

(c) Max Wertheimer

(d) William James

348. The doctrine of formal discipline was connected with the field of:

(a) Social Psychology

(b) Educational Psychology

(c) Industrial Psychology

(d) Military Psychology

349. The subjective concepts like ‘satisfaction’ and “annoyance” are included in :

(a) The Law of Exercise

(b) The Law of Effect

(c) The Law of Readiness

(d) The Law of Analysis

350. E.L. Thorndike criticised Binet’s test of intelligence and as a substitute to Stanford- Binet Scale, he developed his own test called:

(a) RSBP

(b) CAVD

(c) CDPR

(d) TANG

351. As a substitute of Stanford-Binet scale, Thorndike developed his own test called CAVD (Completion, Arithmetic Reasoning, Vocabulary, Directions) test that measured unrelated abilities which together might be called as:

(a) General Intelligence

(b) Abstract Intelligence

(c) Core Intelligence

(d) Pure Intelligence

352. The ability to deal with social relations is called:

(a) Abstract Intelligence

(b) Social Intelligence

(c) Mechanical Intelligence

(d) General Intelligence

353. Who has conducted the first systematic laboratory investigation in the field of ani­mal learning?

(a) Will, am James

(b) E. L. Throndike

(c) J. B. Watson

(d) I. P. Pavlov

354. The ability to manipulate objects, tools and equipments is known as :

(a) General Intelligence

(b) Mechanical Intelligence

(c) Social Intelligence

(d) Abstract Intelligence

355. Abstract intelligence refers to ability to deal with abstract materials like:

(a) Objects, tools and instruments

(b) Symbols, words, concepts

(c) Social relations

(d) None of the above

356. H. Ebbinghaus was a German:

(a) Psychoanalyst

(b) Psychiatrist

(c) Structuralist

(d) Associationist

357. Ebbinghaus has conducted the first syste­matic laboratory investigation on:

(a) Learning

(b) Memory

(c) Motivation

(d) Intelligence

358. Bekhterev, a Russian contemporary and rival of Pavlov, became instrumental in shifting associationism from:

(a) Ideas to overt responses

(b) Images to covert responses

(c) Images to words

(d) Ideas to covert responses

359. Who has accepted “Verbal Report” as a method of investigation for human subjects?

(a) J.B. Watson

(b) Wilhelm Wundt

(c) Max Wertheimer

(d) I. P. Pavlov

360. The laws of frequency and recency were accepted as the major principles of:

(a) Dissociation

(b) Connection

(c) Integrity

(d) Illusion

361. For J. B. Watson, thinking is nothing but:

(a) Subvocal talking

(b) Reflex Action

(c) Nervous Breakdown

(d) Muscular contraction

362. The popular theory of thinking developed by Watson is:

(a) Peripheral theory of thinking

(b) Central Theory of thinking V

(c) Reflex theory of thinking

(d) None of the above

363. Who emphatically said that J. B. Watson has provided a molecular definition of behaviour in terms of its physiological details?

(a) R S. Woodworth

(b) E. C. Tolman

(c) Wilhelm Wundt

(d) William James

364. Which principle states that all parts of brain are as important as the other and therefore, they are equally potential?

(a) Principle of Equipotentiality

(b) Principle of Readiness

(c) The Principle of Mass Action

(d) The Principle of Effect

365. Which principle held that learnt behaviour did not depend on specific neural connections in the brain but on the brain as a whole?

(a) Principle of Exercise

(b) The Principle of Mass Action

(c) Principle of Readiness

(d) Principle of Effect

366. Karl Lashley was best known for his extensive research in the field of:

(a) Physiological Psychology

(b) Social Psychology

(c) Educational Psychology

(d) Industrial Psychology

367. Who has pointed out that introspection was an example of pathology of scientific methods?

(a) Karl Lashley

(b) Edwin B. Holt

(c) Walter S. Hunter

(d) William James

368. Which hypothesis emphasized that generalization gradients depend upon the opportunity given to the organism to learn about the various properties of stimulus dimension along which generalization was to take place?

(a) Lashley-Wade Hypothesis

(b) Watson-Wade Hypothesis

(c) Watson-Raynor Hypothesis

(d) Raynor-Wade Hypothesis

369. Who introduced the concept of “associative inhibition” to explain “extinction”?

(a) I. P. Pavlov

(b) E. R. Guthrie

(c) E. C. Tolman

(d) J.B. Watson

370. Who has developed an instrument called “Operant Conditioning Chamber” for stu­dying various principles of learning?

(a) B. F. Skinner

(b) J. B. Watson

(c) E. L. Thorndike

(d) Clark L. Hull

371. Skinner was a true behaviourist and took organism as “empty” one. He is least concerned with what goes on inside the organism. Therefore, his approach to psychology may be called as:

(a) Empty Organism Approach

(b) Instinctive Approach

(c) Fixed Ratio Approach

(d) Fixed Interval Approach

372. One example of negative reinforcer is:

(a) Electric Shock

(b) Dry Food

(c) Money

(d) Water

373. The pattern followed in presenting rein- forcers after responses have been emitted by the organism during experimentation is called:

(a) Primary Reinforcement

(b) Schedules of Reinforcement

(c) Secondary Reinforcement

(d) Positive Reinforcement

374. S-R-theorists are strict behaviouristic ones who explain learning by giving emphasis upon:

(a) Perception

(b) Association

(c) Attention

(d) Personality

375. The S-S theorists explain learning by associating it with the psychology of:

(a) Association

(b) Personality

(c) Intelligence

(d) Perception

376. E.L. Thorndjke was a:

(a) S-S. Theoriest

(b) S-R. Theoriest

(c) S-P. Theoriest

(d) S-N Theoriest

377. For Tolman, Stimulus is a kind of perception of environmental events which are processed and influenced by Organisms:

(a) Personality

(b) Past history

(c) Creativity

(d) Perception

378. Tolman is not an empty Behaviourist, rather he is a:

(a) Purposive Behaviourist

(b) Structuralist

(c) Gestalt Psychologist

(d) Psychoanalyst

379. Tolman held that learnt behaviour is always directed and oriented towards:

(a) Goal

(b) Frustration

(c) Ego Satisfaction

(d) Drive satisfaction

380. Who has outlined his system in his book “Purposive Behaviour in Animals and Men” published in 1932?

(a) E. C. Tolman

(b) J. B. Watson

(c) I. P. Pavlov

(d) Mc. Dougall

381. Who considered behaviour in terms of “mean-end relationship”?

(a) J.B. Watson

(b) E.C. Tolman

(c) Sigmund Freud

(d) Mc. Dougall

382. Tolman has derived his idea of purposive behaviour from:

(a) Mc. Dougall’s Hormic Psychology

(b) Sigmund Freud’s Psychoanalysis

(c) Adler’s Individual Psychology

(d) Jung’s Analytical Psychology

383. Who has commented “Tolman has combined Wntsonian Behaviourism and Pavlov’s con­ditioning with Thorndike’s Law of Effect and Mc. Dougall’s purposivism and the Gestalt theory of perception coloured by Lewin’s field theory?

(a) Boring

(b) Atkinson

(c) Wolman

(d) Heidbreider

384. In his system, Tolman has recognised a set of independent variables to be the major causative factors of:

(a) Behaviour

(b) Personality

(c) Perception

(d) Creativity

385. Who said, “B = f (S, P, H, T, A)”?

Where, S = Environmental Stimulus

D = Physiological Drive

H = Heredity

T = Previous Training

A = Age

B = Behaviour

(a) J. B. Watson

(b) E.C. Tolman

(c) Max Wertheirmer

(d) Mc. Dougall

386. According to Tolman, Environmental Stimulus (S) and Physiological Drive (D) variables are called:

(a) Releasing variables

(b) Guiding variables

(c) Relieving variables

(d) Stimulating variables

387. Who is credited as the first psychologist who introduced the concept of intervening variables in Psychology?

(a) I. P. Pavlov

(b) J. B. Watson

(c) E. C. Tolman

(d) Mc. Dougall

388. Who held that important individual difference variables are H, A, T and E, popularly known as HATE variables?

(a) E. C. Tolman

(b) I.P. Pavlov

(c) Mc. Dougall

(d) J.B. Watson

389. Heredity (H), Previous Training (T) and Age (A) variables are called as:

(a) Releasing variables

(b) Guiding variables

(c) Intervening variables

(d) Latent variables

390. E. C. Tolmon defined dependent variables as those behaviours which are:

(a) Dormant

(b) Observable

(c) Latent

(d) Internal

391. According to Tolman, the preference for a particular motive is popularly known as:

(a) Meed System

(b) Belief value matrix

(c) Behaviour Space

(d) Latent Learning

392. For Tolman, the tendency to seek particular goal rather than some other goals when experiencing a particular drive is called:

(a) Space Equation

(b) Field Expectancy

(c) Cathexis

(d) Equivalence Beliefs

393. When a child develops a relationship between his hunger and biscuits, Tolman would say it as:

(a) Cathexis

(b) Equivalence Beliefs

(c) Field Expectancy

(d) Sign-significates

394. Tolman’s concept of “cathexis” was taken from:

(a) Freudian Terminology

(b) Adler’s Terminology

(c) Jung’s Terminology

(d) Sheldon’s Terminology

395. The ability that refers to distinguish among different types of drives is known as:

(a) Field cognitive modes

(b) Drive Discrimination

(c) Motor Patterns

(d) Equivalence Beliefs

396. Cognitions about “What leads to what” are known as:

(a) Field Expectancies

(b) Equivalence Beliefs

(c) Cathexis

(d) Drive Discrimination

397. Tinklepough (1928) has conducted one important experiment to show the phenomenon of:

(a) Reward in learning

(b) Expectancy in learning

(c) Memory in attention

(d) Attention in learning

398. According to Tolman, learning takes place in the absence of reinforcement also. Such learning is called:

(a) Obstruction Learning

(b) Reward Learning

(c) Latent Learning

(d) Place Learning

399. Who prefers to call his system as “Interbehaviourism”?

(a) Mc Dougall

(b) E. C. Tolman

(c) J.B. Watson

(d) J. R. Kantor

400. Throughout his system, Kantor has emphasized that constructs should be related to:

(a) Observable stimulus events

(b) Observable response events

(c) External behaviour

(d) Internal

Answers

301. (a) 302. (a) 303. (b) 304. (d) 305. (a) 306. (b) 307. (b) 308. (b) 309. (b) 310. (a) 311. (b) 312. (a) 313. (b) 314. (a) 315. (d) 316. (b) 317. (c) 318. (b) 319. (b) 320. (a) 321. (a) 322. (a) 323. (d) 324. (d) 325. (b) 326. (a) 327. (b) 328. (b) 329. (b) 330. (a) 331. (b) 332. (a) 333. (a) 334. (a) 335. (b) 336. (a) 337. (b) 338. (a) 339. (b) 340. (b) 341. (a) 342. (d) 343. (c) 344. (a) 345. (a) 346. (a) 347. (b) 348. (b) 349. (b) 350. (b) 351. (b) 352. (b) 353. (b) 354. (b) 355. (b) 356. (d) 357. (b) 358. (a) 359. (a) 360. (b) 361. (a) 362. (a) 363. (b) 364. (a) 365. (b) 366. (a) 367. (a) 368. (a) 369. (b) 370. (a) 371. (a) 372. (a) 373. (b) 374. (b) 375. (d) 376. (b) 377. (b) 378. (a) 379. (a) 380. (a) 381. (b) 382. (a) 383. (c) 384. (a) 385. (b) 386. (a) 387. (c) 388. (a) 389. (b) 390. (b) 391. (b) 392. (c) 393. (a) 394. (a) 395. (b) 396. (a) 397. (b) 398. (c) 399. (d) 400. (a)

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