(b) tangible active processes, but retention is: (a)

(b) No stimulus behaviour segment

(c) Acute feeling segment

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(d) Mild feeling segment

402. Reactional Biography refers to a sense of previous interactions that a person had with different:

(a) Response objects

(b) Stimulus objects

(c) Situational factors

(d) Social factors

403. The famous book “Social Learning Theory” (1977) was published by:

(a) J. B. Watson

(b) Albert Bandura

(c) Mc Dougall

(d) J. R. Kantor

404. Who viewed that human behaviour can be easily understood as a function of reciprocal interaction of behavioural, cognitive and environmental determinants?

(a) Albert Bandura

(b) Mc Dougall

(c) C. G. Jung

(d) J. B. Watson

405. Which practice is conducive for complex asks involving meaningfully related, coordi­nated movements and patterns of rhythmic activity?

(a) Distributed practice

(b) Photographic Image

(c) Massed practice

(d) Eidetic Image

(e) None of the above

406. In the behaviourial science like Psychology, it is open for anyone to suggest an exceedingly broad definition of memory saying that we have an instance of memory whenever present performance shows any influence of the :

(a) Previous responses of the organism

(b) Later responses of the Organism

(c) Psychological condition of the organism

(d) Physiological anomaly of the Organism

(e) None of the above

407. Memory and remembering denote the same comprehensive process which includes:

(a) Thinking, Intuition, Intelligence and Learning

(b) Imagination, Intuition, Learning and Retention

(c) Learning, Retaining, Recall and Recognition

(d) Intuition, Imagination, thinking and Problem Solving

(e) None of the above

408. Retention is not measured directly, but it is:

(a) Inferred indirectly

(b) Assessed directly

(c) Very often measured indirectly

(d) Measured in a different scale

(e) None of the above

409. Learning and recalling or retrieving involve tangible active processes, but retention is:

(a) Inferential and inactive

(b) Sometimes passive but not always

(c) Very often conflicting

(d) Somehow a haphazard process

(e) None of the above

410. Recognizing is remembering something in its presence, whereas recalling is:

(a) Recognizing it in its presence

(b) Remembering’ it in its absence

(c) Reconstructing it in its presence

(d) Relearning it in its absence

(e) None of the above

411. Learning, retention, recall and recognition are said to constitute:

(a) Intelligence

(b) Memory

(c) Intuition

(d) Imagination

(e) None of the above

412. Nonsense materials are difficult to learn because:

(a) They cannot be easily associated with one another

(b) They can be associated with one another

(c) They are unknown materials

(d) They are not connected with our daily life

(e) None of the above

413. Remembering is the organization of materials in the context of:

(a) Present Experience

(b) Future Experience

(c) Past Experience

(d) Both present and future Experience

(e) None of the above

414. The least strength necessary for an item to be overtly reproduced defines the:

(a) Threshold of reconstruction

(b) Threshold of recall

(c) Threshold of recognition

(d) Threshold of response

(e) None of the above

415. The value of the minimum strength required for active recall varies over trials till sure recall is established. Such random fluctu­ations in the availability of an item for active recall are called:

(a) Oscillations at recall threshold

(b) Motivational Conflicts

(c) Eidetic Tension

(d) Restructuring Conflicts

(e) None of the above

416. The TOT experience represents a state of partial knowledge resulting presently in some short of a:

(a) Rehearsal

(b) Generic Recall

(c) Recency Effect

(d) Sensory Register

(e) None of the above

417. Retrieval is more commonly explained on the basis of the generation recognition theory of:

(a) Information Processing

(b) Iconic Image

(c) Sensory Register

(d) Primary Effect

(e) None of the above

418. In comparison with recall, recognition is supposed to be relatively free from:

(a) Iconic image

(b) Retrieval problems

(c) Primary effect

(d) Serial position effect

(e) Past experience

419. Recognition tests, which directly provide the test word, clearly by pass the search and retrieval processes by which the Subject generates his:

(a) Recognition

(b) Reconstruction

(c) Recall

(d) Relearning

(e) Saving

420. Reminiscence is generally more after:

(a) Massed Practice

(b) Spaced Practice

(c) Part Learning

(d) Serial Learning

(e) None of the above

421. Short-term remembering is based on:

(a) Episodic Memory

(b) Activity Traces

(c) Semantic Memory

(d) Past Experience

(e) None of the above

422. The manner in which humans transform, tag, organize or abstract stimulus events and store the results of the transformations in memory is called:

(a) Retrieval

(b) Iconic image

(c) Coding

(d) Activity traces

(e) Semantic memory

423. The more an item is rehearsed, the more likely it is to become part of:

(a) Short-term Memory (STM)

(b) Long-term Memory

(c) Retention

(d) Free Recall

(e) None of the above

424. The effect of preceding learning activity on the learning of new task is called:

(a) Transfer

(b) Retroactive Inhibition

(c) Proactive Inhbition

(d) Reminiscence

(e) None of the above

425. Just going over and over what is to be remembered, is called:

(a) Elaborative Rehearsal

(b) Maintenance Rehearsal

(c) Level-of-processing

(d) Semantic Memory Theory

(e) None of the above

426. Suppose in a hypothetical study, the experimental group made a score of 100 while the performance of the control group on the same transfer task was 80; what is the percentage of transfer?

(a) 60

(b) 50

(c) 75

(d) 25

(e) 90

427. If, at the beginning of the transfer task, the experimental group was exactly at the starting level of the control group, then, in effect, this would be:

(a) Zero transfer

(b) Positive transfer

(c) Negative transfer

(d) 25% transfer

(e) 75% transfer

428. Very often, elaborative rehearsal, is intro­duced in the context of memory stages, but it is a part of an alternative conception of memory called the:

(a) Episodic Memory

(b) Reminiscence

(c) TOT Phenomenon

(d) Levels-of-processing theory

(e) None of the above

429. Retroactive Inhibition is interference from:

(a) Later acquired responses

(b) Former acquired responses

(c) Past experience

(d) Similar experience

(e) None of the above

430. The adverse effect upon retention of an activity interpolated between learning and recall is:

(a) Proactive Inhibition

(b) Negative Transfer

(c) Retroactive transfer

(d) Zero transfer

(e) None of the above

432. Retroactive Inhibition-the interference of interpolated activity-is like:

(a) Negative transfer effect

(b) Positive transfer effect

(c) Zero transfer effect

(d) 25% transfer effect

(e) 50% transfer effect

433. Retroactive inhibition increases with the degree of:

(a) Original Learning

(b) Interpolated Learning

(c) Forgetting

(d) Long-term memory

(e) None of the above

434. The amount of retroactive inhibition is a negatively accelerated increasing function of the degree of:

(a) Transfer of Learning

(b) Interpolated Learning

(c) Original Learning

(d) Semantic Memory

(e) None of the above

435. Experimental evidences indicate that simi­larity between the original and interpolated tasks is an important determiner of:

(a) Episodic Memory

(b) Retroactive Interference

(c) Transfer of learning

(d) Reminiscence

(e) None of the above

436. A major criticism against preservation- consolidation theory is that it made no effort to account for cases of:

(a) Retroactive inhibition

(b) Proactive inhibition

(c) Abnormal forgetting

(d) Semantic memory

(e) None of the above

437. Extinction is response decrement whereas unlearning occurs in virtue of new acquisition of a different response to the:

(a) New stimulus

(b) Similar stimulus

(c) Old stimulus

(d) Dissimilar stimulus

(e) None of the above

438. The symmetrical figures are better remem­bered because basically they involve some very simple plan. The Gestalt Psychologists are inclined to see in this the working of their principle of:

(a) Closure

(b) Pragnaz

(c) Good Figure

(d) Similarity

(e) Proximity

439. According to Gestalt formulation, one of the causes of forgetting is low tension in the concerned:

(a) Trace systems

(b) Nervous system

(c) Endocrine system

(d) Sympathetic system

(e) None of the above

440. Trying to account for the “Zeigarnik Effect”, who assumed some sort of continued subconscious excitation in the memory trace?

(a) Kohler

(b) Koffka

(c) Wertheimer

(d) B. F. Skinner

(e) Kurt Lewin

441. Interrupted tasks are better recalled than the completed ones due to:

(a) Conflict

(b) Psychic Tension

(c) Interference

(d) Generalisation

(e) None of the above

442. It is undoubtedly a common experience that we recall superbly things in which:

(a) We are personally involved

(b) We are not personally involved

(c) We invite certain criticisms

(d) We are involved as a group

(e) None of the above

443. Task variability is an important determiner of:

(a) Short-term memory

(b) Long-term memory

(c) Semantic Memory

(d) Zeigarnik Effect

(e) None of the above

444. Who, experimentally, verified that little children remember incomplete tasks more than grown-ups?

(a) Wertheimer

(b) Koffka

(c) Zeigarnik

(d) Kohler

(e) None of the above

445. Many chemical hypotheses reveal that protein changes appear to be the biochemical basis of:

(a) Endocrine glands

(b) Neurons

(c) Memory traces

(d) Exocrine glands

(e) None of the above

446. Immediate memory (up to a few minutes) is adversely affected by:

(a) Astasia Abasia

(b) Aphonia

(c) Anoxia

(d) Amnesia

(e) None of the above

447. Woodworth always considered disuse or absence of practice or rehearsal as a prerequisite of:

(a) Forgetting

(b) Memory

(c) Learning

(d) Reminiscence

(e) None of the above

448. Memories of specific things that have happened to a person (reminiscence) is called:

(a) Semantic memory

(b) Elaborative Rehearsal

(c) Maintenance Rehearsal

(d) Episodic Memory

(e) None of the above

449. Who was the first Indian to have performed a motor learning experiment to compare whole and part methods with the advantage to the former?

(a) Dr. Jha, K. N.

(b) Chauhan, S.

(c) Gopalswami, M. V.

(d) Sinha, D.

(e) Anand Shyam

450. The methods of Ebbinghaus and materials of memory experimentation were introduced in our country by:

(a) Jain Mahendra and Jain Surendra

(b) Ganguli, H.C. and M. N. Rao

(c) Rath, R and N. Pattanaik

(d) Maiti, H. P. and N. S. N Sastry

(e) Sinha, D. and P. Kumar

451. Sound of words is generally coded in:

(a) Sensory Memory

(b) Visual Memory

(c) Long-term Memory

(d) Short-term memory

(e) None of the above

452. The TOT phenomenon is associated with that theory of forgetting in which the basis is:

(a) Retrieval Failure

(b) Psychic tension

(c) Retrograde Amnesia

(d) Ego involvement

(e) None of the above

453. Amnesia is considered to be an extreme case of:

(a) Regression

(b) Rationalization

(c) Displacement

(d) Repression

(e) None of the above

454. The amount of items a person can grasp in a single act of apprehension is called:

(a) Reminiscence

(b) Zeigarnik Effect

(c) Immediate memory span

(d) Span of attention

(e) None of the above

455. Complete loss of memory is otherwise known as:

(a) Astasia Abasia

(b) Amnesia

(c) Aphonsia

(d) Mental Retardation

(e) None of the above

456. The retrieval of what has been stored in memory is called:

(a) Recognition

(b) Recall

(c) Relearning

(d) Reconstruction

(e) None of the above

457. Two types of recall are discernible. These are:

(a) Free Recall and Cued Recall

(b) Free Recall and Restricted Recall

(c) Incomplete Recall and Complete Recall

(d) Systematic Recall and Unsystematic Recall

(e) None of the above

458. “What some dogs can do if you take them to hunt birds at a lake” describes the word:

(a) Rehearsal

(b) Semantic Memory

(c) Episodic Memory

(d) Retrieval

(e) None of the above

459. The memory we merely remember as long as it is in our eyes, casting an image in our retina, is:

(a) Sensory Memory

(b) Iconic Memory

(c) Episodic Memory

(d) Semantic Memory

(e) None of the above

460. The memory for the image lasts in our eyes for only about:

(a) l/6th of a second

(b) l/5th of a second

(c) 1/10th of a second

(d) 1/9th of a second

(e) l/7th of a second

461. A popular example of short-tem memory is:

(a) Rumour

(b) Storytelling

(c) Poem Recitation

(d) Immediate memory span

(e) None of the above

462. What we remember for long is called:

(a) Long-term memory

(b) Short-term memory

(c) Amnesia

(d) Qualitative Memory

(e) Mood

463. Mrs. B. Zeigarnik is a/an:

(a) Russian Psychologist

(b) American Psychologist

(c) German Psycholeist

(d) Swiss Psychologist

(e) Indian Psychologist

464. Dutta and Kanungo (Indian Psychologists) have given a new interpretation to the “Zeigarnik Effect”. Their experimental evidences indicated that the critical factor in “Zeigarnik Effect” is:

(a) Dimension of emotion

(b) Subjective factors in perception

(c) Intensity of emotion

(d) Objective factors in perception

(e) None of the above

465. Long-term memory has a more or less enduring impression in the:

(a) Body

(b) Glands

(c) Brain

(d) Spinal Cord

(e) None of the above

466. If you know the multiplication tables by heart, it would be difficult to forget them overnight. This is a bright example of:

(a) Long-term memory

(b) Short-term memory

(c) Rote Learning

(d) Episodic Memory

(e) None of the above

467. In 1927, a psychologist wrote about seven strategies by which we can improve our memory. His /Her name is:

(a) Zeigarnik

(b) Woodrow

(c) Watson

(d) Sigmund Freud

(e) Alfred Adler

468. As it has been noticed, the study techniques are survey, question, read, recite and review, which is abbreviated to:

(a) SPQR

(b) SQPR

(c) SQ3R

(d) SQ2R

(e) SQ1R

469. The very term “SQ3R” is an example of what is called a/an:

(a) Elaborative Rehearsal

(b) Maintenance Rehearsal

(c) Semantic Memory

(d) Mnemonic Device

(e) None of the above

470. “Mnemonic” means something that is related to:

(a) Learning

(b) Memory

(c) Perception

(d) Meaning

(e) None of the above

471. Rhyming is a/an:

(a) Matrix

(b) Mnemonic Device

(c) Cue

(d) Sign

(e) None of the above

472. “CBI” is a/an:

(a) Nonsense syllable

(b) “CVC” trigram

(c) Acronym

(d) “CCC” trigram

(e) None of the above

473. Ebbinghaus published a monograph of experiments on memory in:

(a) 1934

(b) 1885

(c) 1856

(d) 1845

(e) 1986

474. According to consolidation theorists, the changes in the nervous system produce by learning are:

(a) Time dependent

(b) Response dependent

(c) Stimulus dependent

(d) Space dependent

(e) None of the above

475. A person, who has had a head injury, is unable to recall the events that took place before the accident. This is technically known as:

(a) Retrograde Amnesia

(b) Astasia Abasia

(c) Aphonia

(d) Phobia

(e) Trauma

476. The “Decay Theory” is sometimes called:

(a) Trace Theory

(b) Interference Theory

(c) Leaky-bucket Theory

(d) Levels-of-processing Theory

(e) None of the above

477. Which theory of forgetting gives an explanation by pointing to the weakening of the memory trace formed by experience with passage of time?

(a) Trace Theory

(b) Interference Theory

(c) Decay Theory

(d) Levels-of-processing Theory

(e) None of the above

478. Who told that the memory trace undergoes a gradual change with the passage of time and becomes so different that it is difficult to recognize it from its original?

(a) Ebbinghaus

(b) Trion

(c) Robinson

(d) Bertlett

(e) Warkins

479. The superficial elements in the original materials are pruned and the retained materials become more and more condensed compared to the original material in the process of:

(a) Levelling

(b) Sharpening

(c) Information Processing

(d) Retrieval

(e) None of the above

480. A high positive transfer results when:

(a) Stimuli are similar and responses are identical

(b) Stimuli are dissimilar and responses are identical

(c) Stimuli are similar but responses are not identical

(d) Stimuli are dissimilar and responses are not identical

(e) None of the above

481. Recently, in psychology, the word “input” is used synonymously with:

(a) Influence

(b) Acquisition

(c) Vision

(d) Information

(e) None of the above

482. Very often, snatches of what we learnt before, a poem or a song burst into our consciousness, all of a sudden, without any effort on our part and without any apparent stimulation. Such type of unintentional recall is called:

(a) Spontaneous Recovery

(b) Reminiscence

(c) Preservation

(d) Perseveration

(e) None of the above

483. To avoid forgetting, we should over learn the material by:

(a) 150%

(b) 75%

(c) 30%

(d) 45%

(e) 26%

484. A protective mental mechanism to which an individual resorts to escape unpleasant, unsatisfactory and humiliating experiences is called:

(a) Repression

(b) Regression

(c) Rationalization

(d) Sublimation

(e) Escapism

485. The TOT planomenon indicates that information is organised in:

(a) Short-term-memory (STM)

(b) Original Learning

(c) Long-term Memory (LTM)

(d) Interpolated Learning

(e) None of the above

486. Information seems to be stored in semantic memory:

(a) In a highly organized way

(b) In a highly disorganised way

(c) In different levels of processing

(d) In a systematic pattern

(e) None of the above

487. “Semantic Memory” is considered to be:

(a) Very unstable

(b) Very unpredictable

(c) Very stable

(d) Very dynamic

(e) None of the above

488. Which type of memory consists of long-term memories of specific things that have happened to us at a particular time and space?

(a) Episodic Memory

(b) Semantic Memory

(c) Iconic Memory

(d) Levels of processing

(e) None of the above

489. Which type of memory has a biographical reference?

(a) Semantic Memory

(b) Iconic Memory

(c) Episodic Memory

(d) Levels-of-processing

(e) None of the above

490. Our “remembrances of things past” that have happened to us at certain times and places is:

(a) Episodic Memory

(b) Semantic Memory

(c) Iconic Memory

(d) Levels of Processing

(e) None of the above

491. The concept of “repression” was originated in:

(a) Physiology

(b) Behaviourism

(c) Psychoanalysis

(d) Functionalism

(e) Structuralism

492. When previous skill learning interferes with the learning of a new skill:

(a) Positive transfer occurs

(b) Zero transfer occurs

(c) 25% transfer occurs

(d) Negative transfer occurs

(e) None of the above

493. Retrieval from long-term memory is a two stage process according to the:

(a) Level-of-processing theory

(b) Generation-recognition theory

(c) Interference theory

(d) Trace theory

(e) None of the above

494. Semantic and Episodic memory are two kinds of:

(a) Short-term memory organisation

(b) Retrieval Process

(c) Long-term memory organization

(d) Rehearsal Process

(e) None of the above

495. The short-term store holds information for up to about:

(a) 20 seconds

(b) 40 seconds

(c) 30 seconds

(d) 50 seconds

(e) 80 seconds

496. The portion of short-term store in which the information is rehearsed is called the:

(a) Retrieval Store

(b) Rehearsal Buffer

(c) Encoding Store

(d) Information processing store

(e) None of the above

497. One type of rehearsal in which items in short-term store are simply repeated over and over is called:

(a) Elaborative Rehearsal

(b) Sensory Register

(c) Maintenance Rehearsal

(d) Levels-of-processing

(e) None of the Above

498. Which type of rehearsal involves giving information in the rehearsal buffer orga­nisation and meaning as it is rehearsed?

(a) Maintenance Rehearsal

(b) Sensory Register

(c) Levels-of-processing

(d) Elaborative Rehearsal

499. The graphic representation of learning which shows that the strength of response gradually increases with more and more learning trials is called:

(a) Acquisition Curve

(b) Forgetting Curve

(c) Retention Curve

(d) Plateau

(e) None of the above

500. Which type of memory results from conditioning of forced associations? s

(a) Semantic Memory

(b) Iconic Memory

(c) Rote Memory

(d) Episodic Memory

(e) None of the above


401. (a) 402. (b) 403. (b) 404. (a) 405. (c) 406. (a) 407. (c) 408. (a) 409. (a) 410. (b) 411. (b) 412. (a) 413. (c) 414. (b) 415. (a) 416. (b) 417. (a) 418. (b) 419. (c) 420. (a) 421. (b) 422. (c) 423. (b) 424. (a) 425. (b) 426. (d) 427. (c) 428. (d) 429. (c) 430. (c) 431. (d) 432. (a) 433. (b) 434. (b) 435. (b) 436. (a) 437. (c) 438. (b) 439. (a) 440. (b) 441. (b) 442. (a) 443. (d) 444. (c) 445. (c) 446. (c) 447. (a) 448. (d) 449. (c) 450. (d) 451. (d) 452. (a) 453. (d) 454. (c) 455. (b) 456. (b) 457. (a) 458. (d) 459. (a) 460. (b) 461. (d) 462. (a) 463. (a) 464. (c) 465. (c) 466. (a) 467. (b) 468. (c) 469. (d) 470. (b) 471. (b) 472. (c) 473. (b) 474. (a) 475. (a) 476. (c) 477. (c) 478. (d) 479. (a) 480. (a) 481. (b) 482. (d) 483. (a) 484. (a) 485. (c) 486. (a) 487. (c) 488. (a) 489. (c) 490. (a) 491. (c) 492. (d) 493. (b) 494. (c) 495. (c) 496. (b) 497. (c) 498. (d) 499. (a) 500. (c)


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