(b) of processing (c) Sharpening (d) Levelling

(b) Recall the answers easily

(c) Reconstruct the answers easily

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(d) Relearn the answers easily

(e) None of the above

502. Distortion of memory is caused due to:

(a) Repression

(b) Regression

(c) Inhibition

(d) Amnesia

(e) None of the above

503. According to the levels-of-processing idea, the first level is simply:

(a) Learning

(b) Thinking

(c) Motivation

(d) Perception

(e) Rehearsal

504. The processes by which a message undergoes change in passing from one person to another are technically called:

(a) Levelling and Sharpening

(b) Transfer and Training

(c) Information Processing

(d) Levels-of-processing

(e) None of the above

505. One who has learnt to ride a cycle rides a Bajaj Scooter with little difficulty; the phenomenon illustrated is called:

(a) Long-term memory

(b) Short-term memory

(c) Transfer of training

(d) Episodic Memory

(e) Semantic Memory

506. A contrasting model of memory reveals that incoming information can be worked on at different levels of analysis; the deeper the analysis goes, the better the memory. What is the name of this model?

(a) Levels-of-processing

(b) Semantic Memory

(c) Episodic Memory

(d) Elaborative Rehearsal

(e) None of the above

507. In addition to its transient equality, short- term memory (STM) also has a very limited storage capacity. This storage capacity is estimated to be about:

(a) Five items, plus or minus two (5 ± 2)

(b) Seven items, plus or minus two (7 ±2)

(c) Three items, plus or minus two (3 ± 2)

(d) Four items, plus or minus two (4 ± 2)

(e) None of the above

508. The storage capacity of short-term memory can be increased by a process known as:

(a) Chunking

(b) Levels of processing

(c) Sharpening

(d) Levelling

(e) None of the above

509. The degreet to which incoming information is processed, so that it can be tied to, or integrated with, existing memories, is known as:

(a) Maintenance Rehearsal

(b) Levelling

(c) Sharpening

(d) Elaboration

(e) None of the above

510. The partial and altered representations of what is in the world around us is known as:

(a) Mirror

(b) Image

(c) Sensation

(d) Percept

(e) None of the above

511. Very often, a profound memory problem with no loss of consciousness is found. It comes on suddenly without any obvious cause and it typically lasts for only a few hours or days before memory becomes normal again. Fortunately, most people who experience such amnesia have it only once. This type of amnesia is called:

(a) Senile Dementia

(b) Retrograde Amnesia

(c) Transient Global Amnesia

(d) Defensive Amnesia

(e) None of the above

512. Sometimes people forget their names, where they have come from, who their spouses are and many other details of their past lives. This type of amnesia is called:

(a) Defensive Amnesia

(b) Childhood Amnesia

(c) Dream Amnesia

(d) Transient Global Amnesia

(e) None of the above

513. Medical Science reveals that heavy drinking over a period of years, however, can result, through vitamin-B deficits and other chemical imbalances, in irreversible brain damage and a pattern of symptoms known as the :

(a) Korsakoff syndrome

(b) Senile Dementia

(c) Transient Global Amnesia

(d) Dream Amnesia

(e) Childhood Amnesia

514. Alcohol-induced amnesia is an example of:

(a) Iconic Memory

(b) Semantic Memory

(c) Episodic Memory

(d) State-dependent memory

(e) None of the above

515. Very often, aged people suffer from deficits in many intellectual activities i.e. memory, attention, judgement and abstract thought etc. This problem is popularly known as:

(a) Senile dementia

(b) Delusions

(c) Korsakoff Syndrome

(d) Transient Global Amnesia

(e) None of the above

516. The more concrete and meaningful are the materials:

(a) The greater is its associative value

(c) The difficulty level increases to its maximum

(d) The threshold of remembering increases

(e) None of the above

517. Through which sense modality, learning leads to more efficiency?

(a) Tactual

(b) Olfactory

(c) Both Tactual and Olfactory

(d) Visual

(e) None of the above

518. The course of retention which is presented by a curve is called:

(a) Retention Curve

(b) Learning Curve

(c) Normal Probability Curve (NPC)

(d) Ogive

(e) None of the above

519. If the amount of retention is plotted in a graph, then the curve will be a/an:

(a) Descending one

(b) Ascending one

(c) Normal one

(d) Bimodal

(e) None of the above

520. If the amount of forgetting is plotted in a graph, then the curve will be a/an:

(a) Ascending one

(b) Normal one

(c) Bimodal

(d) Descending one

(e) None of the above

521. Most curves of retention for nonsense syllables measured by relearning and saving method commonly agree in showing a:

(a) Positively accelerated form

(b) Negatively accelerated form

(c) Straight line

(d) bell-shaped curve

(e) None of the above

522. Studies indicated that the percentage of saving also varies with variation with material. Retention curve for meaningful material may run at a different height from those of nonsense syllables. But, by and large, different retention curves have:

(a) More or less similar characteristics

(b) More or less dissimilar characteristics

(c) Different types of accelerated form

(d) Haphazard accelerated form

(e) None of the above

523. The main characteristic of forgetting is that, at first, forgetting is rapid, but as time lap­ses:

(a) Rate of forgetting becomes more faster

(b) Rate of forgetting becomes slower and slower

(c) Rate of forgetting comes to zero

(d) Forgetting becomes haphazard

(e) None of the above

524. The quantitative study of memory presented in the curve of retention or forgetting is the most important contribution of:

(a) Sigmund Freud

(b) H. Ebbinghaus

(c) Bertlett

(d) Edna Heidbrader

(e) E. C. Tolman

525. Retention curve suggests that:

(a) Forgetting is never complete

(b) Forgetting is complete

(c) In the true sense, forgetting never occurs

(d) Memory cannot be measured quantitatively

(e) None of the above

526. The retention curve obtained by Ebbinghaus suggests that forgetting is most rapid for:

(a) Poems

(b) Prose pieces

(c) Nonsense syllables

(d) Meaningful materials

(e) None of the above

527. According to Gestalt Psychologists, one of the causes of forgetting is low tension in:

(a) The concerned trace

(b) Nervous system

(c) Circular system

(d) Respiratory system

(e) None of the above

528. According to Guilford, recognition means:

(a) Cognition

(b) Conation

(c) Extra Sensory Perception (ESP)

(d) Knowing Again

(e) None of the above

529. Recognition is the most easiest method of testing:

(a) Learning

(b) Retention

(c) Thinking

(d) Intelligence

(e) None of the above

530. Who said that the essential difference between recall and recognition is that in the first case, the stimulus is not there for one’s identification while it is there in the second case?

(a) Bertlett

(b) E. L. Thorndike

(c) H. Ebbinghaus

(d) Guilford

(e) Irion

531. Maximum retention is possible by:

(a) Recall method

(b) Recognition method

(c) Relearning and saving method

(d) Reconstruction method

(d) None of the above

532. Recognition is easier than recall because:

(a) The object is present and mixed with some other new materials

(b) The object is forgotten temporarily

(c) The object bears no resemblance with others

(d) It is predetermined before birth

(e) None of the above

534. Who said “As similarity between inter­polated activity and original learning is reduced to a near identity, retention falls to a minimum and then rises again but with decrease in similarity it never reaches the level obtained with maximum similarity”?

(a) Anderson and Anderson

(b) Postman and Smith

(c) Tulving and Underwood

(d) Skaggs and Robinson

(e) Mc Geoch and Irion

535. The relearning or Saving method was originally introduced by:

(a) Postman

(b) Ebbinghaus

(c) Bertlett

(d) Robinson

(e) Anderson

537. You learn something and try to find out much you have retained after a week by trying to learn it again. What is this method of testing retention called?

(a) Recognition

(b) Recall

(c) Reconstruction

(d) Relearning and Saving

(e) None of the above

538. Suppose “S” has taken six trials for Original Learning (OL) and two trials for relearning (RL); what will be his saving score?

(a) 33.33%

(b) 57.67%

(c) 66.67%

(d) 45.93%

(e) None of the above

539. Forgetting refers to the negative aspect or opposite of:

(a) Thinking

(b) Imagination

(c) Learning

(d) Remembering

(e) None of the above

540. From his experiments on memory, Ebbinghaus had concluded that any material with an associative value:

(a) Increases forgetting

(b) Has no effect on memory

(c) Decreases forgetting

(d) Sometimes increases and sometimes decreases forgetting

(e) None of the above

541. Who said that when learning is rapid, forgetting is slow and when learning is slow, forgetting is rapid?

(a) Ebbinghaus

(b) Robinson

(c) Anderson

(d) Underwood

(e) Irion

542. Who said that intraserial inferences also lead to forgetting?

(a) Gibson

(b) Robinson

(c) Anderson

(d) Jenkins

(e) Dallenbech

543. Who confirmed that forgetting is not so much a matter of decay of old impressions and associations as it is a matter of inhi­bition interference and obliteration of the old by the new”?

(a) Irion and Smith

(b) Jenkins and Dallenbech

(c) Robinson and Robinson

(d) Peterson and Peterson

(e) Bertlett and Santrock

544. The first systematic investigation of retroactive inhibition was carried out by:

(a) Muller and Pilzecker (1900)

(b) Bertlett and Santrock (1979)

(c) Anderson and Anderson (1983)

(d) Peterson and Peterson (1959)

(e) Tolman and Honzik (1930)

545. Similarity and dissimilarity between original learning and interpolated activity has been subjected to a good number of investi­gations, it being a major cause of:

(a) Retroactive Inhibition

(b) Forgetting

(c) Learning

(d) Thinking

(e) None of the above

546. Similarity of materials between original learning and retention interval leads to:

(a) More confusion

(b) Less confusion

(c) 50% of forgetting

(d) 100% of forgetting

(e) None of the above

547. Who said that incomplete tasks are better remembered than the complete ones?

(a) Sigmund Freud

(b) Zeigarnik

(c) Otto Rank

(d) Kurt Lewin

(e) Alfred Adler

548. In 15 minute retention interval, if the interpolated activity is introduced between the 6th and 10th minute, retroactive inhibition will be:

(a) Minimum

(b) Maximum

(c) Zero

(d) Either maximum or zero

(e) None of the above

549. Many studies on memory indicated that as the interpolated activity continues for a longer period and interpolated learning is done throughly, there is:

(a) Less forgetting

(b) More forgetting

(c) Zero forgetting

(d) Either zero or less forgetting

(e) None of the above

550. When the Original Learning (OL) and Interpolated Learning (IL) are learnt through the same sense modality than through different sense modalities, inhibition is:

(a) More

(b) Less

(c) Zero

(d) Either less or zero

(e) None of the above

551. A good number of experimenters have opined that the longer the rest and between Original Learning and subsequent recall:

(a) The less is the interference

(b) The more is the interference

(c) Interference is zero

(d) Interference is either maximum or zero

(e) None of the above

552. Forgetting also occurs when new learning is disturbed by the old learning. This is known as forgetting due to:

(a) Retroactive Inhibition

(b) Conflict

(c) Fatigue

(d) Proactive Inhibition

(e) None of the above

553. Over short intervals of time, say a few hours, forgetting produced by retroactive Inhibition is:

(a) Greater than proactive inhibition

(b) Less than proactive inhibition

(c) Equal with proactive inhibition

(d) Zero or negligible

(e) None of the above

554. A continuous increase in skill after practice ceases is called:

(a) Inhibition

(b) Forgetting

(c) Memory

(d) Reminiscence

(e) Amnesia

555. Reminiscence particularly occurs in case of:

(a) Perfect Learning

(b) Zero Learning

(c) Partial Learning

(d) Latent Learning

(e) Intentional Learning

556. The problem of reminiscence was first studied by:

(a) Gibson

(b) Ebbinghaus

(c) Robinson

(d) Ballard

(e) Irion

557. Nonsense syllables, trigrams and verbatims are difficult to remember and hence:

(a) Show less reminiscence

(b) Show more reminiscence

(c) Are not easily forgotten

(d) Are not subjects to amnesia

(e) None of the above

558. Mc Clelland has found that reminiscene was greater with:

(a) Less rapid presentation

(b) Slow presentation

(c) More rapid presentation

(d) Motor learning

(e) None of the above

559. Long-term-memory (LTM) is otherwise known as:

(a) State-dependent memory

(b) Secondary Memory

(c) Primary Memory

(d) Iconic Memory

(e) Meta Memory

560. Elaborate rehearsal is more effective for:

(a) Long-term Memory (LTM)

(b) Short-term Memory (STM)

(c) Meta Memory

(d) Iconic Memory

(e) None of the above

561. The most significant feature of short-term memory (STM) is its:

(a) Unlimited Capacity

(b) Korsakoff s Syndrome

(c) Limited Capacity

(d) Active Construction

(e) None of the above

562. “Theory of Disuse” was advanced by:

(a) Irion

(b) Robinson

(c) Ebbinghaus

(d) Bertlett

(e) Gates

563. “Theory of Disuse” holds that forgetting takes place as memory becomes fainter due to disuse:

(a) With the passage of time

(b) With the ignorance of “S”

(c) With the ignorance of “F’

(d) With the carelessness of “E”

(e) None of the above

564. The “Interference Theory of Forgetting” has a:

(a) Gestalt Orientation

(b) Behaviouristic Orientation

(c) Psychoanalytic Orientation

(d) Structuralistic Orientation

(e) Functionalistic Orientation

565. Who has concluded that the degree of retroactive inhibition depends upon generali­zation and differentiation?

(a) Bertlett

(b) Robinson

(c) Gibson

(d) Gates

(e) Ebbinghaus

566. Trace theory of forgetting is otherwise known as:

(a) Interference Theory

(b) Motivated Forgetting

(c) Theory of progressive changes in memory

(d) Retrieval-related forgetting

(e) None of the above

567. The Trace Theory of forgetting has a:

(a) Gestalt Orientation

(b) Behaviouristic Orientation

(c) Structuralistic Orientation

(d) Functionalistic Orientation

(e) Psychoanalytic Orientation

568. Who argued that we perceive a thing as a whole and from this follows the organization in any psychological process including memory?

(a) Behaviourists

(b) Gestalt Psychologists

(c) Psychoanalysts

(d) Structuralists

(e) Functionalists

569. Who believed that what we learn leaves traces in the brain in the form of neural traces?

(a) Sigmund Freud

(b) Robinson

(c) Thomas

(d) Ebbinghaus

(e) None of the above

570. The Gestalists have approached the study of memory from the side of:

(a) Perception

(b) Creativity

(c) Personality

(d) Intelligence

(e) Individual Difference

571. Who emphasized upon the fact that the memory trace of a figure must change progressively in the direction of a good stable figure?

(a) Behaviourists

(b) Gestalt Psychologists

(c) Functionalists

(d) Structuralists

(e) None of the above

572. According to Gestalt Psychologists, the or­ganized and well structured materials have:

(a) Strong Association

(b) Weak Association

(c) Unstable and temporary

(d) Stable memory traces

(e) None of the above

573. Gestalt Psychologists held that our memory or any of our memory products never suffer from a complete:

(a) Generalization

(b) Extinction

(c) Differentiation

(d) Visualization

(e) None of the above

574. Who has aptly remarked, “Memory has been tackled by Gestalts from the point of view of their study of perception”?

(a) Postman and Egan

(b) Woodworth and Schlosberg

(c) Thomas and Robinson

(d) Bower and Clark

(e) None of the above

575. Sigmund Freud’s discovery of “Psycho- pathology of Everyday Life” reflects that:

(a) All forgettings are not motivated

(b) All forgettings are motivated

(c) Forgetting is abnormal

(d) Forgetting is normal

(e) None of the above

576. Several experimental findings indicate that incomplete or interrupted task is better learnt and retained than complete tasks. This is popularly known as:

(a) PQ4R method by Thomas and Robinson

(b) Yogic Exercises

(c) Zeigarnik Effect

(d) Active Retrieval

(e) None of the above

577. Who is primarily responsible for qualitative measurement of retention?

(a) Ebbinghaus

(b) Robinson

(c) Kurt Lewin

(d) Bertlett

(e) E. L. Thorndike

578. Who held the view that remembering is primarily constructive rather than repro­ductive?

(a) Bertlett

(b) Ebbinghaus

(c) Anderson

(d) Irion

(e) Thomas

579. Who has written the classic book “Remem­bering”?

(a) H. Ebbinghaus

(b) Thomas

(c) Bertlett

(d) Robinson

(e) Gates

580. From many experimental studies, Bertlett concluded that the chief characteristic of remembering is:

(a) Retrieval

(b) Transformation

(c) Concentration

(d) Practice

(e) None of the above

581. Method of Repeated Reproduction is otherwise known as:

(a) Method of successive reproduction

(b) Method of Serial reproduction

(c) PQ4R Method

(d) Mnemonic Devices

(e) None of the above

582. Psychoanalytic theory of forgetting and Bertlett’s theory of remembering seek to explain:

(a) The causes of our day-to-day common forgettings

(b) Abnormal forgetting only

(c) Motivated forgetting only

(d) Photographic memory only

(e) None of the above

583. The phenomenon of “rumour” can be very successfully explained by:

(a) Photographic Memory

(b) PQ4R Method

(c) Peg-word System

(d) Bertlett’s theory of remembering

(e) Interference theory of forgetting

584. Experimental evidences indicate that reci­tation or rehearsal of materials is necessary to make learning:

(a) Weak and Unsystematic

(b) Quick and Economical

(c) Constructive and Fair

(d) Organized and Systematic

(e) None of the above

585. The common sense view describing the cause underlying the process of forgetting is elaborated in terms of:

(a) Theory of Exercise

(b) Theory of Interference

(c) Theory of Disuse

(d) Theory of Memory Traces

(e) None of the above

586. The phenomena of spontaneous recovery and reminiscences prove that disuse theory is:

(a) Right

(b) Wrong

(c) Applicable in case of photographic memory

(d) Applicable in case of Iconic memory

(e) None of the above

587. What happens in the interval between learning and recall determine the:

(a) Course of Retrieval

(b) Cause of Iconic Memory

(c) Cause of Mnemonic Devices

(d) Course of forgetting

(e) None of the above

588. The art of applying memory devices is called:

(a) Photographic

(b) Eidetic

(c) Mnemonic

(d) Chain Technique

(e) None of the above

589. “A” learned a list of nonsense syllables without any rest in between trials. “B” learned the same list with a rest of 2 minutes in between trials. Whose retention score is expected to be higher?

(a) “A”

(b) Sometimes “A”, sometimes “B”

(c) Neither “A” nor “B”

(d) “B”

(e) None of the above

590. Who has introduced the first systematic theory of motivated forgetting ?

(a) Otto Rank

(b) Sigmund Freud

(c) Alfred Adler

(d) C.G. Jung

(e) Zeigarnik

591. A person took 8 trials to learn a list of nonsense syllables and took 6 trials to relearn the same list after two days. What was the percentage of his forgetting?

(a) 70%

(b) 75%

(c) 60%

(d) 50%

(e) 40%

592. The process through which information coming from the sense is transformed, reduced, elaborated, recovered and used is called:

(a) Conation

(b) Memory

(c) Cognition

(d) Personality

(e) None of the above

593. The branch of psychology which studies cognitive processes is known as:

(a) General Psychology

(b) Cognitive Psychology

(c) Abnormal Psychology

(d) Comparative Psychology

(e) Criminal Psychology

594. The storage function of the sensory channels is called the:

(a) Short-term storage

(b) Sensory register

(c) Long-term storage

(d) Schema

(e) Distortions

595. In vision, the sensory storage seems to be in the form of a faint image called a/an:

(a) Eidetic image

(b) Photographic image

(c) Iconic image

(d) Visual image

(e) None of the above

596. Mnemonic systems organize information, so that it can be remembered, Mnemonic techniques are simple mental tricks such as rhymes or visual images which help us to improve our memory. The oldest mnemonic trick, which is credited to Greek poet Simonides, is:

(a) key-word system

(b) Peg-word system

(c) Method of Loci

(d) Digit-letter system

(e) PQ4R Method

597. Who held the view that memory trace changes according to the dynamic principles of organization?

(a) Behaviourists

(b) Structuralists

(c) Functionalists

(d) Gestaltists

(e) Psychoanalysts

598. Who viewed that retention or memory items are recorded in the form of neural traces in the brain automatically?

(a) W. Kohler

(b) Kurt Lewin

(c) Koffka

(d) Robinson

(e) H. Ebbinghaus

599. The Behaviouristically Oriented Psycho­logists introduced the concept of:

(a) Interferences as the basis of forgetting

(b) Memory Trace

(c) Encoding System

(d) PQ4R Method

(e) Method of Loci

600. Qualitative interpretations of forgetting came from:

(a) Behaviouristic School

(b) Gestalt School

(c) Functionalistic School

(d) Structuralistic School

(e) None of the above


501. (a) 502. (c) 503. (d) 504. (a) 505. (c) 506. (a) 507. (b) 508. (a) 509. (d) 510. (b) 511. (c) 512. (a) 513. (a) 514. (d) 515. (a) 516. (a) 517. (d) 518. (a) 519. (b) 520. (d) 521. (b) 522. (a) 523. (b) 524. (b) 525. (a) 526. (c) 527. (a) 528. (d) 529. (b) 530. (d) 531. (b) 532. (a) 533. (b) 534. (d) 535. (b) 536. (a) 537. (d) 538. (c) 539. (d) 540. (c) 541. (d) 542. (a) 543. (b) 544. (a) 545. (a) 546. (a) 547. (b) 548. (a) 549. (b) 550. (a) 551. (a) 552. (a) 553. (a) 554. (d) 555. (c) 556. (d) 557. (a) 558. (c) 559. (b) 560. (a) 561. (c) 562. (c) 563. (a) 564. (b) 565. (c) 566. (c) 567. (a) 568. (b) 569. (d) 570. (a) 571. (b) 572. (d) 573. (b) 574. (b) 575. (b) 576. (c) 577. (d) 578. (a) 579. (c) 580. (b) 581. (a) 582. (a) 583. (d) 584. (b) 585. (c) 586. (b) 587. (d) 588. (c) 589. (d) 590. (b) 591. (b) 592. (c) 593. (b) 594. (b) 595. (c) 596. (c) 597. (d) 598. (c) 599. (a) 600. (b)


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