RISE Islam, Hinduism, Sikhism and Buddhism in this
RISE OF BJP IN J AND K: A STUDY OF 2014 ELECTION
ABSTRACT: Throughout ancient times, Kashmir has stood for peaceful contemplation, intellectual advancement and religious diversity coexisting in an atmosphere of tolerance for the most part. In the modern geopolitical era, this same diversity, evident from the blend of Islam, Hinduism, Sikhism and Buddhism in this single state has made it unique. The state has special autonomy under Article 370 of the Constitution of India.
KEY WORDS: Jammu and Kashmir. Politics in Jammu and Kashmir.2014 elections. Analysis of agreement. Evaluation of elections. Rise of BJP. Formation of government. Formation of govt. Analysis of agreement.
The state provides a very apt example of multi-level plurality on the basis of culture, religion, language and ethnicity. It consists of three divisions Jammu, Kashmir and Ladakh which are otherwise geographically distinct units. Jammu region is partly dominated by Hindus especially Jammu, Kathua and parts of Udhampur district, while the Kashmir valley is dominated by Muslims. Ladakh is inhabited by Muslims and Buddhists. Such plurality has its impact on the political perceptions and responses. The divergent nature of political aspirations within the state has given rise to different levels of politics operating within the regions. Srinagar is the summer capital, and Jammu is the winter capital. Jammu and Kashmir is the only state in India with a Muslim-majority population. The Kashmir valley is famous for its beautiful mountainous landscape, and Jammu’s numerous shrines attract tens of thousands of Hindu pilgrims every year while Ladakh, is renowned for its remote mountain beauty and Buddhist culture. Jammu and Kashmir had a Muslim majority. the population of Jammu and Kashmir according to 2011 census is 12.55 million. In Jammu and Kashmir census 2011 provides good insight of current demography. As per census 2011, Muslims are majority in Jammu and Kashmir state. Muslims constitutes 68.31% of Jammu and Kashmir population while Hindus 28.44%. It was 77% Muslim according to the census in 1941. Following the logic of Partition, many people in Pakistan expected that Kashmir would join Pakistan. However, the predominant political movement in the Valley of Kashmir (Jammu and Kashmir National Conference) was secular and was allied with the Indian National Congress since the 1930s. So many in India too had expectations that Kashmir would join India. The Maharaja was faced with indecision and The maharaja decided in favour of India by signing instrument of accession.
BJP (BHARTIYA JANTA PARTY)
The BJP is the major political party besides congress in India. It has largest membership as of 2017. The Bhartiya Janata Party was officially created in 1980, and the first general election it contested was in 1984, in which it won only two Lok Sabha seats. The origin of BJP goes back to 1951 when Syama Prasad Mukherjee under the umbrella of Bhartiya Jana Sangh put its first stone.it was a milestone because till then the congress was the only party. The main ideology of BJP is (integral humanism). The main belief of BJP is agenda of is Hindutva as reflected in its policy, later it applied the Hindutva policy and grew in number because of ram jan-bhoomi movement. Then after there was no back look for BJP. it won in several state assemblies and it showed good performance in next parliament election. BJP became the only largest party in 1996 elections but because of clear majority its govt lasted for 13 days. in 1998 it again formed govt under the leadership of Atal Bihari Vajpayee, known as NDA govt because it was a coalition government. this time it was for one year of governance. Following fresh election, the NDA govt again headed by Vajpayee led to a full term. This was first non-congress since independence. In 2004 election BJP suffered an un-expected defeat. now BJP was principal opposition party for next 10 years. The election of 2014 were full of expectation both from point of view of congress and BJP too. Both were sure of making government, but this time results were un expected with BJP sweeping majority of seats under the leadership of Modi. Who was chief minister of Gujrat but this time he was portrayed as PM candidate. in this election BJP put their everything, from media to road shows and going to voters. Modi was lucky because of anger of people towards congress. Thus, Modi became the obvious choice. This time a wave of BJP went through the whole India helping BJP to get a clear majority in parliament, this was called Modi wave. This wave affected so many states with BJP securing power in 19 states including jammu and kashmir.
PDP (PEOPLES DEMOCRATIC PARTY)
After analysing the situation in Jammu and Kashmir politics and the condition of people of Jammu and Kashmir the former Home minister thought to eliminate the sufferings of people and for that purpose founded PDP in 1998. PDP came to power in Jammu and Kashmir in October 2002 assembly. It was a member of united progressive alliance which was congress govt. Mufti Mohammad Sayeed headed the PDP-Indian National Congress Coalition Government between October 2002 and November 2005. He was the party’s Patron until his death on 7 January 2016. The party is now headed by Mehboob mufti his daughter. The main ideology of PDP is self-rule distant from autonomy and the party believes in self-rule as their primary philosophy. It has representation in National Assembly also.
Elections in JAMMUAND Kashmir
Elections in Jammu and Kashmir have remained a contentious issue from beginning because of the reason of its political sensitivity or situation. On every election there is a tough competition between political parties and separatist. On one hand separatist’s resistance and boycott call to election. On other hand political parties try their best in campaigning having their own agenda for elections and manifesto. elections since 1957 have seen a lot of up and down the election from Sheik Abdullah to Bakshi rule and then again Sheikh Abdullah rule after signing accord with Indira Ghandi. Then continuous government of sheikh Abdullah to son to Farooq Abdullah. Farooq Abdullah proved to be loyal to India. During period of insurgency Farooq Abdullah ruled according to India govt orders. After this period of high insurgency came year 1998 when PDP was formed by former home minister mufti Mohammed Syed. In 2004 election the party came to power leaving behind the Sheikh era. People now had some hope that something will change. they did so during their term. PDP was to some extent able to address people’s grievances but In next elections Omar Abdullah son of Farooq Abdullah i.e national conference came to power who turned down the expectations of peoples .In 2009 elections PDP came to power this time they proved to some extent. They took so many projects and signed so many projects with central government like distribution of electricity share. After this it was the 2014 assembly elections in which BJP put their candidate in every constituency of Jammu and Kashmir, so did other parties like NC, PDP, congress. The result of this election was stunning with BJP sweeping majority of Jammu seats, 25 out of 87 and PDP 28, rest went to others.
Evaluation of 2014 elections
The elections held in November-December 2014 were more peaceful than 2008.Because of uprising in Kashmir in 2008 the elections were barely held. The elections were of more importance because this time BJP rose as a major stake holder. A look at the regional patterns reveals that the overall verdict is really an aggregation of very different contests in different parts of the state. If the BJP was the runaway winner in the Hindu-dominated parts of Jammu, the Muslim-dominated parts of Jammu saw the most even four-cornered race with all four major parties getting between 20% and 28% of the votes and the largest among them, the Congress, winning just five of the 12 seats. As in Jammu, so also in Kashmir, the contest was not quite the same in the northern and southern parts of the Valley. The PDPk clearly dominated south Kashmir, winning 13 of the 21 seats and garnering a vote share of over 40%. The National Conference, despite winning a healthy 30%-plus of the votes could manage no more than four seats since the 10% gap from the leading party was decisive in a largely bi-polar contest in the region. The Congress finished a distant third with 13.2% of the votes and two seats. North Kashmir saw a more even battle between the two regional parties, with the NC’s 28.2% much closer to the PDP’s 34.9%. That was reflected in the seat tallies too, with the NC picking up eight to the PDP’s 12.
RISE OF BJP IN J
The rise of BJP in Jammu and Kashmir in 2014 elections was no less than a big milestone for BJP itself. BJP was on backfoot but when results came, it surprised everyone. there are reasons for that. one among them is Modi wave which swept several states and in Jammu Kashmir it worked as well. BJP took all most all the seats and came up with as a major power stock holder in Jammu a region, while in PDP came as victorious sweeping 28 out of 87 seats. Why BJP failed in Kashmir region the reason for that is the strong footing of PDP and national conference. people are connected with these two parties emotionally. But in Jammu region BJP became as major party on call of development and Hindutva. The focus of electoral politics in Jammu has been the rural population living along the violent borders with Pakistan. The party lost seats in Jammu to PDP . In these 25 seats, it won 22 and garnered a vote share of 48.1%. This, combined with the fact that the region also was the one with the highest turnouts in the state, was enough to make the party’s state-wide share reach a healthy tally.
Another reason being the inability and anti-people “policies of the present government in Jammu and Kashmir led to emergence of forces like BJP which were seeking access to power by “dividing” people and regions”. “From autonomy to removal of AFSPA and providing rations, water supply, power or jobs, NC-led government failed on every front and gave an opportunity to BJP to emerge as a force in some areas of Jammu province
Formation of government:
The Jammu and Kashmir state consists of three political regions, Including Ladakh. towards the east shearing its border with China, Jammu towards the south shares its border with the states of Himachal Pradesh, Punjab and Pakistan, Kashmir Valley towards the west bordering with Pakistan occupied Kashmir as same with the other states of India. The Main political parties in the state of Jammu and Kashmir are People’s Democratic Party (PDP) , Bharatiya Janta Party(BJP).National Conference (NC),Indian national congress (INC) .The formation of the BJP and PDP collation government with mufti Mohammad Sayeed a 79 year old politician and the collation partner as a chief minister and with the two months of hard negotiations between the both political parties based on the common minimum program (CMP) The main objective of this alliance is the agreement which says would be best for making peace, harmony and confidence building within the state and across the LoC for full development of democracy through inclusive politics. Also, the collation should create such type of conditions and platform which would facilitate resolution of all issues which are obstacles in the development of the state. So, the hung government of Jammu and Kashmir will initiate a system of meaningful dialogue with all the separatist leaders irrespective of their ideological views which will seek to build a broad-based consensus on the resolution of all outstanding issues. The issues or the draft preprad by both parties known as Agenda of alliance is given below
The collation government of Jammu and Kashmir has prepared a common minimum programme keeping in mind the people’s mandate. Present Political Scenario of Jammu and Kashmir and the Role of Current Collation Government of P.D.P and B.J.P International Journal of Political Science (IJPS) Page | 24 Here are the 15 highlights of the CMP:
1. In order to make the political development of the state it is important for both the collation partners to create an environment of peace, certainty and stability.
2. The presenta government should be transformed into smart government which would be transparent as well as accountable.
3. It is also the mission of the collation government that Jammu and Kashmir should be ethical rather than a corrupt state.
4. The present government of the state look overall economic policy which will align the economic structure of the state.
5. The present government must ensure the autonomy of institutions of probity which include the state accountability commission, vigilance commission and also gives rise to Right to information act.
6. The government should fallow the principle of insanity, Kashmirit and Jamhooriyat which was laid by earlier prime minister of National Democratic Alliens (NDA) Atal Bihari Vajpayee .The state government will also make a meaningful dialogue with the internal stakeholders which include political groups irrespective of their ideological views
7. The collation government of the state will examine the need to see the disturbed areas which will as a consequence enable the central government to take the final decision on the continuation of Arms Force Special Power Act in such areas
8. As per the current collation government Article 370: the present position will be maintained including the special status.
9. The collation government will also facilitate the dialogue with the Hurriyat Conference irrespective of their ideological views
10. The lands that are acquired by the security forces in the state without any lease and licenses under the provision of the Land Acquisition Act will be returned to the rightful legal owners, except in a situation where retaining the lands is absolutely imperative in view of a specific security requirement. In any case, monetary remuneration, be it in the form of rents or compensation should be made fairly at market rates
11. The collation government will work on the refugees of the Pakistan occupied Kashmir of 1947, 1965 and 1971 respectively and gives one time settlement.
12. The collation government will also take the suitable measures for the livelihood of the western Pakistan refugees
13. The government will also extend the benefits to those people who are living on line of control (LoC) and people living on international borders.
14. The government will secure the share of profit of National Hydro Power Project (NHPC) emanating from Jammu and Kashmir’s water to the state government.
15. The collation government will reserve all royalty agreement with NHPC. 5.
From the above it is concluded that the present hung government is trying to develop all the three divisions of Jammu and Kashmir .It also lead the political development of the state by creating peace and harmony among the citizens of all the three divisions and also keep eyes to maintain good relation with the Pakistan. Its relations with centre is also good as there is NDA govt in centre. While trying their best they can’t do so much in Kashmir while Jammu is developing. The slogan of Kashmiriyat and Jamhooriyat failed completely as People at large are not satisfied with the PDP-BJP coalition. Reason being un-employment, lack of basic facilities like roads, electricity, drinking water, sanitation etc. other reason being the failure of common minimum programme CMP and failure of their promises which the govt had promised.
Election Commission of India State Elections, 2014 Legislative Assembly of Jammu & Kashmir
1. Noorani, Article 370 (2011), pp. 1-8.
2. “Report of the Commissioner for linguistic minorities: 50th report (July 2012 to June 2013)” (PDF). Commissioner for Linguistic Minorities, Ministry of Minority Affairs, Government of India. p. 49. Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 July 2016. Retrieved 14 January 2015.
3. Jump up^ Jones, Daniel (2003) 1917, Peter Roach, James Hartmann and Jane Setter, eds., English Pronouncing Dictionary, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 3-12-539683-2
4. Jump up^ “What is Article 370? Three key points”. The Times of India.
5. Jump up^ “In Depth-the future of Kashmir”. BBC News. Retrieved 16 April2013.
6. Jump up^ Ali Zain (13 September 2015). “Pakistani flag hoisted, pro-freedom slogans chanted in Indian Occupied Kashmir – Daily Pakistan Global”. En.dailypakistan.com.pk. Retrieved 17 November 2015.
7. Jump up^ (11 September 2015). “Pakistani flag hoisted once again in Indian Occupied Kashmir | World | Dunya News”. Dunyanews.tv. Retrieved 17 November 2015.
8. Jump up^ South Asia: fourth report of session 2006–07 by By Great Britain: Parliament: House of Commons: Foreign Affairs Committee page 37
9. Jump up^ Enforced Disappearances in Indian Occupied Kashmir by Jammu and Kashmir Council for Human Rights (JKCHR)1994
10. Jump up^ Snedden, Christopher (2013). Kashmir: The Unwritten History. HarperCollins India. pp. 2–3. ISBN 9350298988.
11. Jump up^ The enigma of terminology, The Hindu, 27 January 2014.
12. Jump up^ Larson, Gerald James. “India’s Agony Over Religion”, 1995, page 245
13. Jump up^ Snedden 2003.
14. Jump up^ Guha, Ramachandra (2008), India after Gandhi: The History of the World’s Largest Democracy, Pan Macmillian, ISBN 0330396110: “Pakistan naturally expected Kashmir, with its Muslim majority, to join it. India thought that the religious factor was irrelevant, especially since the leading political party, the National Conference, was known to be non-sectarian.”
15. Jump up^ Snedden, Christopher (2015), Understanding Kashmir and Kashmiris, Oxford University Press, pp. 172–, ISBN 978-1-84904-342-7: “Senior Pakistanis, many of whom had once naively simply expected that J would join Pakistan, had come to believe that India had been deliberately conniving with Hari Singh to obtain J’s accession. To try to prevent India’s acquisition, some of these Pakistanis sent the Pukhtoons to capture J for Pakistan.”
16. Jump up^ “Quick guide: Kashmir dispute”. BBC News. 29 June 2006. Retrieved 14 June 2009.
17. Jump up^ “Who changed the face of ’47 war?”. Times of India. 14 August 2005. Retrieved 14 August 2005.
18. Jump up^http://www.getmistified.com/competition_docs/2013_Topic_I_Kashmir.pdf
19. Jump up^http://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/bitstream/10603/4425/9/09_chapter%202.pdf
20. ^ Jump up to:a b Stein, Burton. 1998. A History of India. Oxford University Press. 432 pages. ISBN 0-19-565446-3. Page 368.
21. Jump up^ Šumit Ganguly (13 February 1999). The Crisis in Kashmir: Portents of War, Hopes of Peace. Cambridge University Press. pp. 10–. ISBN 978-0-521-65566-8.
22. Jump up^ “Rediff on the NeT Special: The Real Kashmir Story”. Rediff.com. Retrieved 16 April 2013.
23. Jump up^ “Rediff on the NeT: An interview with Field Marshal Sam Manekshaw”. Rediff.com. Retrieved 16 April 2013.
24. Jump up^ Varshney 1992, p. 194.
25. Jump up^ Humayun Mirza (1 January 2002). From Plassey to Pakistan: The Family History of Iskander Mirza, the First President of Pakistan. University Press of America. p. 161. ISBN 978-0-7618-2349-0.
26. Jump up^ Nyla Ali Khan (15 September 2010). Islam, Women, and Violence in Kashmir: Between India and Pakistan. Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 30–. ISBN 978-0-230-11352-7.
27. Jump up^ Subramaniam, Arjun (2016), India’s Wars: A Military History, 1947–1971, Harper Collins India, ISBN 9351777499. Excerpt at How the map of Jammu and Kashmir could have been significantly different today, Scroll.in
28. Jump up^ Schofield 2003, p. 70.
29. Jump up^ Varshney 1992, p. 212.
30. Jump up^ Korbel 1953, pp. 506–507.
J election results Live: PDP is largest party, BJP close behind, NC nowhere in picture. Retrieved at 12.45 pm, 23/01/2018 from http://indianexpress.com/article/india/politics/election-results-jammu-kashmir-231214/
http://eci.nic.in/eci_main/StatisticalReports/AE2014/Stat-Report-J-2014.pdf. Retrieved at 1.10 pm, 23/01/2014
“J & K records historic polling percentage: EC”. The Hindu. 20 December 2014
http://indianexpress.com/article/india/india-news-india/mehbooba-mufti-hints-at-forming-jk-govt-with-bjp Retrieved at 2018/01/23
http://www.thehindu.com/news/national/bjppdp-alliance-to-form-govt-in-jk/article6929399. Retrieved from 2016/09/06
http://www.dnaindia.com/india/report-agenda-for-alliance-full-text-of-the-agreement-between-pdp-and-bjp-2065446 Retrieved from 2
http://www.dnaindia.com/india/report-agenda-for-alliance-full-text-of-the-agreement-between-pdp-and-bjp-2065446 Retrieved from 2015/03/1
Bamzai p. 666 Culture and Political History of Kashmir, Volume 3: Modern Kashmir, P.N.K.
Bamzai, M D Publications vt Ltd, New Delhi, 1994
Bose, Sumantra ( 1999). “Kashmir: Sources of Conflict, Dimensions of Peace” Economic and Political
Weekly . 34 ( 13 ): 763-68.
J National Conference, Vision Document for Jammu and Kashmir, http://www.jknc.in/
Election in Jammu and Kashmir: Government of India news papers The Hindu, Grater Kashmir,
Times of India
Journals: India Today, The Outlook, Welcome to the frontline Vol 29
Sumantra Bose: Challenges to the World’s Largest Democracy
Chowdhary Rekha: Electoral politics in the context of separatism and political divergence, an analysis
of parliamentary election 2009
“15 highlights of PDP-BJP government agenda in Jammu and Kashmir.” India today, 1 May 2015, pp. 1–2
Jaffrelot, Ch., Verniers, G., “The Resistance of Regionalism: BJP’s
Limitations and the Resilience of State Parties”, in Wallace, P., India’s
2014 Elections, New Delhi, Sage, 2015, pp. 28-45.
Jaffrelot, Ch. (2015), “The Class Element in the 2014 Indian Election
and the BJP’s Success with Special Reference to the Hindi Belt”,
Studies in Indian Politics, Vol.3, pp.19-38.
Heath, O., “The BJP’s Return to Power: Mobilisation, Conversion and
Vote Swing in the 2014 Indian Elections”, Contemporary South Asia,
1. Vol.23, 2, 2015, pp.123-135. Mukhtar, Ahmad (28 July 1999). “Mufti floats new regional party in Kashmir”. Rediff.com. Retrieved 5 March 2009.
2. Jump up^ “JKPDP History”. JKPDP.org. Archived from the original on 2014-01-09.
3. Jump up^ “United Progressive Alliance: Partners in governance”. Times of India.
4. Jump up^ “JKPDP Patron”. JKPDP.org. Archived from the original on 2014-05-14.
5. Jump up^ “JKPDP Office Bearers”. JKPDP.org. Archived from the original on 2014-05-03.
6. Jump up^ “Self Rule Framework”. JKPDP.org. Archived from the originalon 2014-01-09.
7. Jump up^ “Rajya Sabha Polls in Jammu and Kashmir: PDP Wins Two”.
8. Jump up^ http://www.cp24.com/world/hindu-nationalist-party-forms-coalition-government-in-kashmir-1.2258773
9. Jump up^ Election Commission 2014.