Sexual a sexual act: (1) with a victim
Sexual Assault is any type of sexual contact or behavior that occurs without the explicit consent of the recipient, this may be forced sexual intercourse, forcible sodomy, child molestation, incest, fondling, or attempted rape (U.S. Dept. of Justice, N.D.). Sometimes, sexual violence is committed by a stranger, most often though; it is committed by someone you know, including a date or an intimate partner like a husband, ex-husband, or boyfriend (EMedicine Health. (April 2015).Sexual Assault Prevention Appalachian state University shares, there are different degrees of sexual assault. First Degree Sexual Assault, is when a person is guilty of a sexual offense when the person engages in a sexual act: (1) with a victim who is a child under the age of 13 years and the defendant is at least 12 years old and is at least 4 years older than the victim, (2) with another person by force and against the will of the other person, and: (a) employs a dangerous or deadly weapon or an article which the other person reasonably believes to be a dangerous or deadly weapon, or (b) inflicts serious personal injury upon the victim or another, by one or more other persons, or (c) the person commits the offense aided and abetted by one or more other persons. Second Degree Sexual Assault, is when a person is guilty of a sexual offense if the person engages in a sexual act: (1) by force and against the will of the other person, or; (2) who is mentally defective, mentally incapacitated, or physically helpless, and the person performing the act knows or should reasonably know the other person is mentally, or physically helpless. (Sexual Assault Prevention, 2015).RAINN explains that child sexual abuse is a form of child abuse that includes sexual activity with a minor. A child cannot consent to any form of sexual activity, period. Child sexual abuse does not need to include physical contact between a perpetrator and a child. Some forms of child sexual abuse include: obscene phone calls, text messages, or digital interaction; fondling; exhibitionism (exposing oneself to a minor); masturbation in the presence of a minor or forcing the minor to masturbate; intercourse, sex of any kind with a minor; producing, owning, or sharing pornographic images or movies of children; sex trafficking; any other sexual conduct that is harmful to a child’s mental, emotional, or physical welfare. (RAINN, 2009).There are various theories as to why people commit sexual assault. Karen Terry shares, in regard to child sexual abuse, David Finkelhor proposed a four factor model for the preconditions of abuse, which integrate the various theories about why individuals begin to a participate in sexually deviant behavior. This organizational framework addresses the full complexity of child sexual abusers, from the etiology of the abuse through the rationalization for it. Finkelhor stated that in order to sexually abuse an individual must (1) have motivation to sexually abuse, (2) overcome internal inhibitions, (3) overcome external factors that may act as inhibitors to the abuse, and (4) overcome the child’s resistance to the abuse. The first precondition, motivation to sexually abuse, simply means that an individual must want to abuse the child. Their motivation may result from many factors, such as the idea that he or she relates better to children than to adults, that there is a sexual attraction to children, or that the abuse is addictive, like a drug. The second precondition, the offender must overcome internal inhibitions to abuse a child, or must be able to justify the abuse to themselves in order to abuse, the offender may justify the abuse by saying, for example, that he or she was abused and enjoyed the abuse as a child, that the abuse is not harmful, or that it is educational. The third precondition, the offender must overcome external factors that may inhibit the abuse. This is the stage where the abuser begins creating opportunities for the abuse to occur. Opportunities may include any situation in which trust is built up between the abuser and the family of the child (if abuser and victim are not related), such as babysitting, coaching the child in a sporting event, or helping the child with homework. The fourth precondition, the abuser must overcome the child’s resistance to the abuse. This often involves emotional manipulation for the child, such as telling the child how special they are or that if the child tells someone, the abuser will go to prison. (Terry, 2013).The majority of abusers are someone the child or family knows. RAINN shares, as many as 93% of victims under the age of 18 years old know their abuser. The abuser can have any type of relationship to the child including an older sibling or playmate, immediate family member or step family member, a teacher, coach, instructor, caretaker, or the parent of another child. The abuser will manipulate the child to stay quiet about the abuse using many different tactics. The abuser will coerce or intimidate the child. The abuser tries to convince the child that the activity is normal or that they enjoy it. The abuser may make threats if the child refuses to participate or plans to tell another adult. With this, child sexual abuse is really not always easy to spot. Since the abuser could be someone you have known for a long time and trust, which makes it even harder to notice. With the child, the following physical warning signs should be considered: difficulty walking or sitting; bloody, torn or stained underclothes; bleeding, bruises or swelling in genital area; pain, itching or burning in genital area; frequent urinary or yeast infections. There are also behavior signs to look for: shrinks away or seems threatened by physical contact; exhibits signs of depression or post-traumatic stress disorder; expresses suicidal thoughts, especially in adolescents; self-harms; develops phobias; has trouble in school, such as absences or drops in grades; changes in hygiene, such as refusing to bathe or bathing excessively; returns to regressive behaviors, such as thumb sucking; runs away from home or school; overly protective and concerned for siblings, or assumes a caretaker role; nightmares or bed-wetting; inappropriate sexual knowledge or behaviors. (RAINN, 2009).The National Center for Victims of Crime reports, the prevalence of child sexual abuse is difficult to determine because it is often not reported; experts agree that the incidence is far greater than what is reported to authorities. Studies by David Finkelhor, Director of the Crimes Against Children Research Center, show that 1 in 5 girls and 1 in 20 boys are victims of child sexual abuse; over the course of their lifetime, 28% of US. Youth ages 14 to 217 had been sexually victimized; children are most vulnerable between the ages of 7 and 13. (2012).Sad but true there are many cases of child sexual abuse, in which the child knew their abuser. Jace Larson reports, there was a case in Houston, that was described as, “one of the most prolific alleged predators Houston has ever seen”, Houston FBI Special Agent Shauna Dunlap. This case involved more than 90 victims, likely more victims that law enforcement did not know about. The suspect, William James Vahey, 64, of South Carolina, killed himself after the FBI began an investigation. Vahey had taught at American schools abroad in various countries for years. Houston FBI began investigating Vahey after being contacted; FBI was given images showing Vahey sexually molesting children while working at the American School in Nicaragua. These images came from a flash drive that a former maid working for Vahey had taken from his home to give to authorities because of the images she saw on the drive. He was a teacher from August 12, 2013 until he was fired on March 11, 2014. FBI had court documents showing Vahey admitted to a co-worker that he molested underage kids his whole life. It was said that a co-worker had confronted Vahey about the allegations; he said “I was molested as a boy and that is why I do this, I have been doing this my whole life.” He further stated that he “never hurt any of the boys”, he also claimed the boys were completely asleep and he used sleeping pills. Larson also reports, according to a federal court record, Vahey was required to register as a sex offender in California after pleading guilty to child molestation in January of 1970. He was a swim instructor at that time in Santa Ana, California. He was sentenced to 90 days in jail; he only registered that one time and never again. It was not clear how Vahey was able to get hired by all of the international schools. Vahey taught in Nicaragua, England, Venezuela, Indonesia, Saudi Arabia, Greece, Iran, Spain, Lebanon. (Larson, 2014).Survivors of childhood sexual abuse have experienced a variety of overwhelming and intense feelings. These feelings may include fear, guilt, distrust and shame. Many will have low self-esteem or self-hatred. As adults, many survivors find themselves in abusive relationships, some become abusers themselves. This abuse causes the victims great trauma. This trauma is dealt with throughout their lives. It is very important for the victim to speak with someone about the abuse and their feelings about the abuse. An extremely important fact to remember, as the victim, you were not responsible for the abuse, the wrong doing was completely on the abuser. Resources:EMedicine Health. (April 2015). Sexual Assault and Abuse. Retrieved from:http://www.emedicinehealth.com/sexual_assault/article_em.htm.Larson, Jace. (April 22, 2014). Click 2 Houston. Houston FBI:One of Worst Child Sex abuseCases Ever. Retrieved from: http://www.click2houston.com/news/houston-fbi-one-of-worst-child-sex-abuse-cases-ever/25598182.RAINN (Rape, Abuse & Incest National Network). (2009). Child Sexual Abuse. Retrieved from:https://www.rainn.org/get-information/types-of-sexual-assault/child-sexual-abuse.Sexual Assault Prevention Appalachian state University. (2015). Definitions of Rape and SexualAssault. Retrieved from: http://sexualassault.appstate.edu/sexual-assault-rapeTerry, Karen. (2013). Sexual Offenses and Offenders Theory, Practice and Policy 2nd Edition.Belmont, CA:Wadsworth, Cengage Learning.The National Center for Victims of Crime. (2012). Retrieved from: http://www.victimsofcrime. org/media/reporting-on-child-sexual-abuse/child-sexual-abuse-statistics.The United States Department of justice. (N.D.). Sexual Assault. Retrieved from:http://www.justice.gov/ovw/sexual-assault.