Solid land resources to disperse waste material.

Solid waste management is a term that is used to
refer to the process of collecting and treating solid wastes. It also offers
solutions for recycling items that do not belong to garbage or trash. As long
as people have been living in settlements and residential areas, garbage or
solid waste has been an issue. Waste management is all about how solid waste
can be changed and used as a valuable resource. Solid waste management should
be embraced by each and every household including the business owners across
the world. Industrialization has brought a lot of good things and bad things as
well. One of the negative effects of industrialization is the creation of solid
waste.( “United
Nations Statistics Division – Environment Statistics” 2017)

management, the collecting, treating, and disposing of solid material that is
discarded because it has served its purpose or is no longer useful. Improper
disposal of municipal solid waste can create unsanitary conditions, and these
conditions in turn can lead to pollution of the environment and to outbreaks of
vector-borne disease—that is, diseases spread by rodents and insects.”

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Cities are highly localized concentrations of
population, production and consumption, creating intensive localized demands on
natural capacities of water , air and land resources to disperse waste material.
If we look back into history, we observe
that the initial concern of mankind was over the supply of water to maintain
life conditions. (Davidson, Gary (June 2011). “Waste
Management Practices: Literature Review” (PDF). Dalhousie
University – Office of Sustainability). Centuries later, the problem of wastewater and wastewater treatment has
emerged, followed by the present issues of air pollution and handling of solid wastes. The latter two issues have become significant only in the 20th
century, and they still remains as unresolved problems of our age (Alpaslan.
1998). Now, it has become more and more difficult to safely manage the
tremendous amount of waste produced by urban societies, as cities
throughout the world continue to grow. (Handbook of
Solid Waste Management and Waste Minimization Technologies. 2003).  Solid waste management is one of the important
and crucial issue of urban management. It is an issue of day to day life and
involves each and every citizen. Management of solid waste refers to a whole
series covering all functional elements from generation to disposal Considering
various functional elements, waste management may be conceptualized as the
discipline associated with the identification, reduction, storage, collection,
transfer and transport, reuse and recycling and effective treatment and
disposal of wastes in a manner that is in accordance with the best principles
of management, economics, engineering, public health, conservation, aesthetics
and other environmental conditions, including all administrative, financial,
legal, planning and engineering functions involved in the whole spectrum of
solutions to the problem of waste. This involve interdisciplinary
relationships among various fields such as management, sociology, political
science, geography, city and regional planning, demography public health
conservation, ecology environmental sciences, material science engineering etc.
(Sushil, 1989).

The waste disposal challenges facing urban areas
vary widely from one region to another.  (Guidelines
for National Waste Management Strategies Moving from Challenges to
Opportunities (PDF). United Nations Environmental Programme.
In poor, less industrialized cities concern regarding waste disposal frequently
focus on local, immediate effects including disease spread by uncollected
garbage as well as pollution of surface and ground water resources. In
industrially developed countries, 
municipal solid waste consists primarily of food, garden trimmings,
paper, glass cardboard, metals and plastics By contrast, municipal solid waste
in developing nations tends to have a much greater percentage of organic wastes
and much less plastic, paper and other manufactured goods . Large urban
metropolises have large population density and scores of new sources of wastes.
According to World Health Organisation (WHO) five million people die due to
diseases related to improper disposal of waste every year Twenty two diseases
are directly related to improper solid waste management practices. Rodent and
vector insects transmit various diseases like dysentery, cholera, plague,
typhoid, infective hepatitis and other (Singh, 2004).

In India, the rapid pace of urbanization goes hand
in hand with industrialization, which is a part of development process,
although not linked to an equivalent and much needed expansion of
infrastructure and basic services. This process of unbalanced urbanization and
modernization has its price in the form of an increased pressure on natural resources
through inefficient and wasteful utilization leading to depletion and
degradation of natural resources.

Municipal solid waste management continues to remain
one of the most neglected areas of urban development in India In many cities
almost more than half of the solid waste generated remains unattended (Jha,
2001). In
India, the responsibility of collection arid disposal of waste has wrested
traditionally with the municipalities. But the municipalities have neither
adequate financial resources nor the trained personnel for dealing with
increasing complexities of garbage disposal. 
Most of the urban local bodies in India have weak administration and
managerial capacities resulting in mismanagement and inefficiency, and Delhi,
the capital of India, is not an exception.

One of the important aspects of urbanization in
India is the tendency towards concentration of population in larger urban
centers. It leaves several issues unmanaged concerning mainly with water
supply, solid waste disposal and environmental decay etc which get manifested
in complex web of social problems and dilemmas of urban development. The level of
infrastructure and services in urban centers has lagged behind the pace of
urbanization. Infrastructure
development is not in a position to keep pace with population growth and
requirement leading to low level of waste collection efficiency Lack of
financial resources, organizational weakness, improper choice of technology and
public apathy towards waste management have made this service far from satisfactory.
In future, as the economy improves, the increase in quantity of garbage due to
population increase will be reinforced by the rise of per capita income
.Additionally, with relative prosperity, more of non- biodegradable waste would
be produced in future.

Urban waste problems are not confined just to cities
themselves, they also greatly affect peripheral regions as the demand for
disposal spill over into an wider area (Inoguchi. ef a/.. 1999). Uncontrolled
dumping of wastes on outskirts of towns and cities has created overflowing
landfills, which are not only impossible to reclaim because of haphazard manner
of dumping, but also have serious environmental implications in terms of water
contamination, land degradation and air pollution contributing to global

A number of Indian cities adopt the practice of
dumping of waste m open landfill sites. The land for this purpose is becoming
difficult to obtain and most of the existing sites have reached the units. The
legal and Illegal dumps are chocking the landmass and rising the height of
landfill sites.  Dump sites in cities of
India have occupied, since the last 50 years, as much space as 20,000 hectares,
which is slightly less than twice the area of Chandigarh (Gupta, 1998). In
Delhi, also sixteen landfill sites have filled up already and existing sites
(Bhalswa. Gazipur and Okhla) have reached to saturation point and overflowing.
Acquisition of new sites is a very tough task for the authorities. In Delhi,
about 95 per cent of waste is being disposed off at the landfill sites,
remaining only 5 per cent go to the processing. It is a common sight to find
out domestic and non-domestic solid wastes dumped in haphazard manner. There
are potential risks for human health and environment from inefficient collection
and unscientific disposal of municipal solid wastes. All wastes from society
end up in one of three environmental depositories – water, air and land.

Basically, there are three main components
(collection, transportation and disposal) of waste management and these three
lack in terms of infrastructure, maintenance and upgradation. However, the
weakest link in the whole chain of management, is the collection of waste.
Infrastructure related to garbage collection and disposal is not as per their
requirement, which further aggravate the problem Delhi, being the most
urbanized, polluted and having highest density of population is facing numerous
civic and infrastructural problems. Urban local bodies, which are entrusted
with the responsibility of garbage disposal are not in a position to adequately
perform their duties because of weak institutiona1 and financial constraints.
Lack of appropriate space, funds and adequate technical know-how are other
bottlenecks. Dustbins and the trolleys provided by Municipal Corporation of
Delhi (MCD) is not fulfilling their purpose. Their installation also put a
question mark on suitability of location.

The problems of solid waste disposal are compounding
every day as amount of waste generation is increasing and area available for
dumping is shrinking. Neither the waste generation can be stopped completely
nor the given space can be enhanced. Landfill sites are over flowing, insanitary
conditions are prevailing near open sites, stray animals and rag pickers roaming
around the waste receptacles. Non-collection of garbage becoming breeding
grounds for vectors, rodents, mosquitoes, flies and pathogenic micro-organisms
posing severe health hazards.

The rate of generation of municipal waste has
increased a lot in spatio-temporal context that urban local bodies are unable
to deal with the huge amount of garbage generated in Delhi. As a result, a
significant amount about 15-25 per cent of garbage, remains uncollected and
accumulates in the form of heaps at various places. It soon begins to rot and
becomes an environmental and health hazard. The municipal solid wastes
generated In Delhi are about 6,000-9,000 metric tonnes per day and quantity of
this has been consistently rising over the years. With the increasing
population, urbanization, rising socio-economic status of people and changing
life styles are attaining larger and complex dimensions, requiring integrated
and sophisticated interventions in terms of technologies policies, plannings,
rules, regulations and legislations. The composition of municipal solid waste
has changed in such a manner that today, a major proportion of the waste is
composed of non-biodegradable materials. The present system of recycling of
plastic, glass, metal, paper etc. is largely informal. This category of waste
can be recycled or disposed off through special processes. Due to these
reasons, the task of handling solid waste has become a highly specialized
managerial task. The waste created by a person may be resource for another one.
The most important problem is that, it is seldom taken as a resource, it is
just taken as a pollutant which is to be dumped. Therefore, it depends upon
human beings, whether it should be considered as a resource or a resistance.

Environmental degradation of urban ecosystem and the
growing awareness of the people will put more and more pressure on municipal
authorities to find out sustainable solution to the acute problem. Sustainable
solid waste management requires not only efficient collection, proper disposal but
also waste reduction, reuse, recycle and resource recovery. Despite the
numerous efforts and measures taken by the government it is still a major
concern for the community with respect to the deteriorating conditions of the
environment. The important aspects which require priority are to improve the
management and organizational capability and enhance people’s participation and
the handling of waste in an appropriate manners. Now it has become critical
issue of Delhi, which require high level planning and management The overall
goal of waste management programmes must be welfare and safeguard of public
health, waste minimization, maximization of resource recover/ and protection of
environmental quality. Therefore, it is necessary to conceive the integrated
solid waste management plan along with urbanisation process rather than
tackling it after the problems appears it is a matter of great concern that
concerned bodies must find any sustainable solution to the problem There is a
dire need to adopt proper waste management techniques which would be
cost-effective, scientifically better, technically sound, financially viable,
aesthetically beautiful, environmental friendly and socially acceptable to
people Now, concerning the problems of garbage in Delhi, there is need of the
hour to conduct an in depth research study of municipal solid waste, which
provides the answer of questions related to solid waste management streams. There are mainly three
local bodies (MCD, NDMC and DCB) in Delhi responsible for management of
municipal solid waste in their respective jurisdiction. Around 0.1 million rag
pickers including women and children are engaged in waste picking and saving
the big amount of money of concerned authorities. Various agents of both
sectors public and private are active The Conservancy and Sanitation
Engineering (CSE) Department which is also known as Department of
Environmental Management Services (DEMS) has employed about fifty thousand
sanitary workers for collection and disposal of solid waste in its area.
Besides, a large staff both skilled and semi-skilled to supervise. A large
number of infrastructure associated with garbage management are available. At
present only three landfill sites, Bhalswa in North Delhi, Gazipur in East and
Okhla in South Delhi are in operation. While, three composting plants (Bhalswa,
Okhla and Tikri Khurd) are there which are running below their capacities.

Sanai (1978) has evaluated the sense of municipal
solid waste material in the sector of agriculture with the assistance of a
composter based model. Viraraghavan (1981) studied the various aspects to be
considered when selecting a landfill site. Varshney (1987) studied the waste
management in South- East Asia and concluded that average waste production from
houses and street is 350 grams per head throughout this region while in rural
India this amount is very low. Sushil (1989) has done a research study on
System Modelling of Waste Management in National Planning. He introduced new
concept of wastivity and a wastivity — growth simulation model has been
formulated to develop scenarios of economic growth for different wastivity
reduction functions. Some broad guidelines to national policy on waste
management are recommended. He further described that many of the
socio-economic problems may be resolved and the objective of sustained economic
growth can be achieved by incorporating waste management strategy in the
national planning. Sivarama and Somasekaran (1990) described the different
processes and technological availability for the location and the disposal of
solid waste in an eco-friendly manner. The hierarchy in the available processes
had also been discussed in details. Park and Bhargava (1992) gave an account of
adverse impact of waste incineration, particularly with reference to gaseous
pollutants released in the environment. Forum for Environmental Concern (1994)
has highlighted the working condition of workers involved in the dumping
operations at six major dumping grounds of Bombay. Huysman (1994) carded out a
study on position of waste pickers living in three slum areas of Bangalore.
Around 25000 people and most of them women and children are dependent on rag
picking. Waste recycling industry is important in terms of the employment and
income earning opportunities for the rag pickers. They have low profits and
suffer from harassment, indiscrimination exploitation and very low
socio-economic status. Female waste pickers have low income, no leisure, no
infrastructural facilities. and limited access to education. Bansal (1998) has
described the planning provisions and reviewed existing methods of solid waste
management in Delhi. He argued that there must be integrated involvement of all
local bodies in coordinated manner for effective waste management. Special
arrangement should be made for lifting, transportation and disposal of waste
generated from various sources. Basu (1998) studied on solid waste disposal and
sanitation situation of Durgapur In his paper he concluded that 20 per cent of
the population suffer from waterborne diseases and 73,000 persons do not have
proper arrangement for safe sanitary system so there was seventy of hygienic
problem resulting in serious consequences for health and vitality potential
Fatta et a/. (1998) have done a study to estimate the quantity of leachate
produced in a landfill site situated in Athens-Greece using the Hydrological
Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP) model. The average per year leakage
through the base of the landfill was estimated in 167 mm and it is considered
to be at normal and expected levels. Water near the landfill site is not
suitable for drinking as well as irrigation purposes. Gupta (1998) examined the
Decentralised Model of Domestic Solid Waste Management of Harkesh Nagar, Delhi.
This model includes eight steps in methodology. She concluded that it was
successful and sustainable and there must be involvement of local civic
authorities, citizens, NGO. It was suggested that on immunity level composting
is most viable option. Jha (1998) ,:scribed the administration and financial
status of MCD in the comprehensive manner. The study has done to relate all
aggregate receipts and expenditure variables with some of the economic features
of this body.

Jan (2000) explained the approaches and actIvities
associated with zero garbage concept (involving reduction, refusal and
recycling) introduced by Greater Mumbai. He also highlighted the role of NGO
and people in waste management process. Kaha ere (2000) concluded that in India
plastic waste account for I to 4 per cent by weight of the total of 80.000
metric tonnes of municipal sod waste generated per day, while this figure is
about 30 per cent of 4 lakh tonnes daily. Booth et al (2001) found that young
children who play in areas where garbage is thrown and scavengers who earn
their living by sorting through rubbish, have an increased risk of health
problems. Potential related diseases are dengue fever, malaria. Menne. rabies,
plague. tentanus. skin Infections hepatitis-B. diarrhoea diseases etc.

CPCB (2006) conducted a study on status of MSW
management In metro cities and state capitals on varies dimensions. Three tier
approach system has been adopted for deeply study of 59 cities in India. Cities
having populations above 20 lakh. the waste generation rate was 0.22 to 0.62
kg/Capita/day. The collection of waste is fully privatized in Nasik, Channel
and Jamshedpur. It was observed by the survey of CPCB that weighing of waste is
not practised in a large number of cities and Quantity of waste is estimated
based on number of trips of vehicles in a day. The highest workforce per
thousand population was recorded at Port Blair and lowest at Gangtok. 13 metro
cities like Bangalore, Hyderabad. Ahmedabad. Kolkala etc have been established
the composting plants. Almost all the cities have adopted open dumping for
waste disposal. Segregation of recyclable by the rag pickers was reported in 22

Barai (2007) has estimated that population of
Bangalore city has increased by 130 per cent over the past decade, the waste
disposal infrastructure has not increased proportionately, dustbins have
Increased by 48 per cent, the menial staff by 8.1 per cent and associated
transport by 72 per cent. The garbage a often found spilling over from dustbins
to roads and vacant plots, especially after the festivals Presently, with the
help of the Centre for Environmental Education, Thoreau Foundation. SUCHI and
other NGOs, the city has been able to recycle about 300 tonnes of organic
garbage. She further felt the need of emphasis on waste disposal in lower
income group areas and involvement of prorate orgamsations. After reviewing the
literature. It was found that maximum studies were written on status of
generation, collection and disposal of garbage. Fewer studies were conducted on
processing and treatment of waste and from social aspects point of view.