Starting approach to the notion of error,

Starting
from the historical aspects of approaching errors, we will first look at the structuralist approach that sees the
error as the negative transfer of the mother tongue, and sets the contradictory
linguistic studies to the center of interest with the aim of predicting  the mistakes to be made. Such a theoretical
linguistic approach is actually a mirror of what follows, a new reference to a
language based on a didactic approach in order to ”compare the language and
culture of the mother tongue with the language and culture of a foreign one, to
see the difficulties that transcend through perception and tracing” (Lado,
1957: 2, in Selinker, 1992: 10). On the other hand, we have a formalistic approach to the notion of
error, which is reflected in the denial of such attitudes, assuming that if the
language is taught by strict rules, there can be no negative impact of the
mother tongue, that is, interference.

If we take into account
the communicative approach, the
attitude towards making errors is a radical change. A completely different
picture is pointed out, based on the comparison of the system and the subsystem
L1 with L2. Here, creativity in learning the language of both mother and
foreign language is expressed. First of all, it refers to language learning
through imitation, stories, images, and this includes the comparison of the
structures and meanings of a foreign language with the mother tongue, for the
purpose of easier understanding, that is, of understanding constructions. What
should certainly be pointed out, which refers to a communicative approach, is
that the error here is shown as an instant deviation, that is, an incorrectly
expressed thought, which may also be the result of an inadequate learning
strategy, and not just the influence of the mother tongue on the side
Ciliberti, 1995: 160).?Some mistakes manifest
themselves as silent  rules by those who learn, some are
typical through the transfer of the mother tongue, some are immediately
corrected and disappeared, and some that are not corrected, but as such
adopted, pose the risk of fossilization.” Andorno (Andorno, 2008: 1).

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