A look around you – friends and other people around you what is clear is that
health is quite variable not just between inividuals and also across different
a population health is also influenced by social status people with higher
income a higher level of education and it better occupation have better health
and a greater life expectancy.
status can change as well for example studies of migrants have shown that the
the of disease health behaviours and risk factors are different in migrants
compared to those in their country of origin.
why is there so much period led to answer that questio , we must understand the
factors that can influence health.
person’s healtrh is influenced by a range of factors called determinants of
health , there include who they are, individual factors such as age, sex,
genetic factors and also, what they do , this includes their health behaviours
such as smoking, psychical activity, alcohol use and diet.
is also largely influence by the conditions in which people are born , grow,
live, work and age, these include their social and community networks , the
ocioeconomic, cultural and environmental conditions that people live in and
also health systems. There are collectively called the social determinants.
social determinants of health are ultimately shaped by the distribution of
money, power and resources at an international , national and local level they
have a marked influence on health and equities which is unfair and available health
differences between different groups of people within countries or between
are many different social determinants of health workning across many levels
and with complex interactions between them so to understand and explain how these
determinats influence and interact with each other to affect health and well
being several models of frameworksd have been proposed, there are many
different frameworks that do this.One useful framework developed by the world
Helth Organisation. According to this framework there are two broad types of
helath determination that influence health and can lead to health inequities
these are stuctural determinants and intermediary determinants.
determinants refer to the socio econimic and political context in which a
person is born into and lives in, these include governance how society
organisers itself to make and inplement decision , economical, social and
public policies and also the social and cultural values that communities place
on healt. These factors can determine and lead to the unequal distribution of
material and monetary resources which shapes a person’s socioeconomic position.
socioeconomic position describes a person’s place in society which can affect
their exposure vulnerability and outcomes two conditions that have an impact on
the health . the socioeconimic position is deterined by a number of factors
such as education, occupation , income, gender, race or ethnicity and social
socio econimic position in turn affects the intermediary determinants of health
, these include material circumstances like the quality of housing , the
financial means to buy healthy food, clothing or other requirements for healthy
living and also the work environment. Psychosocial circumstances like stressfl
living, circumstances relationship and social support behavioral and biological
addition to these health systems have an impact on the type and quality of
healthcare available to people it also determines how easy it is for people to access
health services and receive the health care they need.
cohesion and social capital aree facyors that bridge the structural and
intermediary determinants they describe the willingness of people living in a
community to make sacrifices and they co-operative with each other for while
benefits. Intermediary determinants influence health and health inequities.
It’s also important to know that the links between these different factors are
not always linear but are complex and can go in both direction for example poor
income in education can impact health and also poor health can live in
opportunities for people to participante in the workforce or receive education
also if population is affected by a lot of disease it can have a broader impact
on the socio economic and political context. Is there some chance to change or
influence these determinants.
the social determinants of health is not an easy task involves identifying the
structural and intermediate determinants of health and taking appropriate
actions to improve them, to do this requires actions across all sectors of
society and at all levels including local, national and international. The
action will depend on the existing social economic and political context,
resources that are available and commitment for action.
in the UK feel that inequality the difference between the richest and the
poorest in society is higher that it should be. Inequality was too high but how
does what people think and what people believe in equality should be compared
with actual ineqaulity.
biggest problem is inequality changes over time. The best day to rehab is for
income we start grow 1961 and move forward through each decade , we can see
that inequality is clearly on the rise and remember this in inequality after
taxes and benefits. Ineqality id higher that we think it should be and it is
higher than it was in the 1960 but still many people would accepting more
inequality today if it meant that more people stand a chance of getting to the
can let’s back to 1958. Take a couple from the bottom of the quality of life,
quarter of all learners and that’s assume they have a child at birth , what are
the chances of that child born in1958 ending up in the top quarter by the time
has enabled has expansion of medicine and has improved the overall health of
the global population. However, not all people have the same access to quality
in health include difference in rates of disease, health outcomes and access to
healthcare. Often , inequlities in health are the results of social
inequalities. Differences of socioeconomic and environmental factors may
present barriers to entering the healthcare system resulting in varying degrees
of quality care. It has been shown that wealth is correlated with longevity
indicating a link between socioeconomic status and moratality. In the 19th
century risk factors that accounted for inequality in health outcomes including
overcrowding for sanitation and availability of local treatment facilities,
risk factors have all that disappeared in the industrialized worls so why did
dispartities in healthcare still exist, on the mater hospital and treatment
centres are now widespread across the developed world not everyone can afford
behaviours such as poor diet , inadequate exercise and smoking are highr in
population with lower socioeconimic status. People at higher socioeconimic
status generally have better continuity of care for costs of complying with
treatment regimens and more knoeladge about their care for example women with
higher income and educational levels tend to have better health insurance
increased awareness and the ability to take time to regularly visit their
doctor. They receive more screenings for cervical and breast cancer in addition
to socioeconomic status, race, ethnicity , gender, mental illness and
disability. Are also major factors contributing to inequalities in health. Understanding
why inequalities have persisted despite significant healthcare is an important step forward in
redusing health care inequalities.