The and brand loyalty. In this paper authors

The authors has
developed seven (7) constructs: customer satisfaction, perceived value,
customer expectation, corporate image, brand loyalty, perceived quality and
customer complaints, to check the effect of service quality on customer
satisfaction in the UAE based airline. Service quality measured separately by
modification in the SERVQUAL model, an American perspective model developed by Parasuraman,
A. et al, 1985 having dimensions Reliability, Responsiveness, Assurance,
Tangibility, and modification done by adding two more dimensions in SERVQUAL
model Security and Safety, Communication which are important for airline
industry. Authors had conducted quantitative research by using questionnaire
instrument and judgmental sampling, however, respondent is selected on the
basis of 1) travelled once with the airline, 2) and having conversation with
the airline staff atleast once during his travelling. The authors purposed that
“airlines must realize the strategic importance of quality: continuously
upgrading quality is not costly in long term however it is an investment that
will generate greater profit(Hussian R., p 168).”

Service quality
is a key determinant of the customer satisfaction which generates the corporate
image and repurchases intensions i.e. brand loyalty. The difference between
customer expectations and perceived value make the customer satisfaction which
in consequences create the customer loyalty and complaints, if the services are
more than the expectations it will delighted and vice versa, delighted services
increase the expectation of the customer and create positive word of mouth and
good customer experience which may be antecedents of brand image. Thus
Performance effects the customer expectation and expectation leads towards
customer satisfaction, brand image and brand loyalty. In this paper authors
developed many hypothesis by using seven construct for contribution in
knowledge of customer satisfaction. He concluded that the service quality is a
difficult and multi-dimensional construct and its salient factors that
determine airline service quality are reliability, responsiveness, tangibles,
security and safety, assurance and communication. Airline companies should consider
these dimensions while making their strategy because improvement in each
dimension will improve and enhance their service quality and customer
satisfaction. The airline firms should provide superior service quality to the passengers
by knowing their expectations and as a result they can gain the good corporate
image and high perceived value rate in outcomes that generate customer
satisfaction which will in turn yield brand loyalty. Brand loyalty leads to
future high purchase, try to buy new products and services, create new
customers by positive word of mouth, and revenue generation and competitive
advantage for long term sustainability which is a motive of every
organizationfirm.  The authors claims
that their customer satisfaction model and service quality model are best fit
in the airline industry as they provide practical insights for airline managers
to how to improve their services. The results of the studied are non western context,
however, conducted in UAE environment and their generalizability of results is
applicable for Gulf Corporation Council countries because of the same culture
and environment. This study also has some limitation; it is conducted on a
single airline data, non western environment, and passengers have lower income
level and also in the period of global recession.

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Theoretical
Intervening

The Brand
Loyalty and customer complaints are derived from the customer satisfaction
model proposed by the Hirschman’s a. According to this theory customers have
two options in their choice when they are dissatisfied with an organization
that they may stop buying (exit) or they may voice (compliant).

 

Service Quality
is key determinant of the customer satisfaction. The author used SERVQUAL model
which is developed by the Parasuraman et al, 1985 is derived from the Gap
theory (service quality is an overall judgment of a customer towards difference
between the expected service and perceived service). This theory is from the
disconfirmation paradigms applied in the physical good literature and used as
basis by Parasuraman et al. for the development of this model. It is also
called American service quality model (American Perspective). It is refined in
1988, devised five dimensions and has total 22 scaled items in a questionnaire
to measure the service quality. According to this model service quality is a
function of perception and expectation and how to measure them form customer
level.

 

In
contrast Cronin and Taylor argued that SERVQUAL model is inadequate to measure
the service quality and provided performance based model namely “SERVPERF”.
They claimed that the SERVPERF scale can measure customers’ perception of
service and also firm’s performance. They perform statistical test on this
model and conclude significant affects on four industries. Later this model was
supported by many researchers and argued that it can measure the customer
perception and firms’s performance.  In
later period many other models are also incorporated by many other researchers
like Teas Model, Three Component model, multi-level model and Third order
factor model.

 

Definition of
variables

Customer
Satisfaction:

Customer
satisfaction is a human perception that is occurred in the experience of post
purchase behavior of product or service. It also refers as a measure of how the
needs and responses are evaluated and delivered by the supplier to meet the
expectation of the customer.  In the
services industry it is very important factor as it generate a good or bad
perception in the customer’s mind and build the repurchase intensions. For
example, in Pakistan Dewoo bus services has good market reputation in
transportation services because of providing the comfortable, well trained
staff assistance and timely departure and arrival services, if they do not
fulfill their commitment, their customer will have a negative perception and
his satisfaction level badly affected which leads the customer to shift to
another services provider, ultimately customer lost.

In
many research studies travelers have find important attributes regarding
customer satisfaction. The study reveals that cleanliness and comfort, value
for money, convenience of location, prompt service, safety and security, and
friendliness of employees are important attributes to determine the customer
satisfaction. (Atkison and Knutson, 1988).

Service
quality and customer satisfaction are closely related but distinct concepts.
Service quality is viewed a key determinant of customer satisfaction. The
relationship between customer satisfaction and service quality is significant
or insignificant, has been tested by many researchers by using different
statistical techniques.

 

 

Example of
Scale:-

 

Service Quality:

Service
quality is derived from the gap theory. It is define as the difference between
the customer expectation and customer perceived performance. It can also be
denoted in an equation SQ= E-P, where SQ is the service quality, E stand for
the customer expectation and P stand for the perceived performance. If
delivered services are up to the level of the expectation then they are
satisfactory and if exceed the expectation then they are delightend which means
excellent.  Excellent service quality
leads towards profitability which is the ultimate goal of the firm or
organization. Services Industry has intense competition therefore it is hard to
gain new customer so companies trying to retain existing customers by providing
high service quality.

Service
quality is derived from the gap 5 of the customer expectation and
organization’s perception of customer expectation by Parasuraman et al in 1985
and measured the service quality on the SERQUAL model by using a 22 items
instrument on likert scale. These items are; 

 

With
the help of an example we try to understand the service quality as the new
iphone mobile lunched by the apple company in the market. In consideration of
charging issues of the customer, company slow down the performance of the iphone
mobile to increase the period of battery power. But the customers who brought
the mobile due to its efficiency performance they are complaining and presumed
product performance is not according to its commitments or value for money. A
gap is generated by the company in resolving the issues facing by the customers
but on the other hand it created a discomfort level for its customers in term
of performance. This difference which is occurred in the customer mind due to
product performance and company commitments is called the service quality.

Brand Loyalty:

Brand
loyalty can be defined as the customer’s preference for a product or services
of a particular company over the other alternatives available in the market.
Brand loyalty occurs when customer perceives that company is offering a product
with right features and right quality at the right price.  These perceptions generate repurchase
behavior and loyalty over a period of time that fostered the trusting
relationship.

Brand
loyalty defined as “the biased, behavioural response, expressed over time, by
some decision-making unit, with respect to one or more alternative brands out
of a set of such brands, and is a function of psychological decision-making,
evaluative processes.” (Jacoby et al, 1978).

For
example the customers who experienced psychologically and financially
satisfaction that Shirt and Tie shop- a suiting brand, offers good products in
term of fabric’s quality, design, stitching and size fitting will buy more
products as compare to other customers.

Personal
example of the brand loyalty is that every month I visited Raheem Store to buy
the grocery products for home. I experienced that the said store offered
quality products, reasonable prices, placed products visible and good ordered,
approximately every home used and pharmacy products under one roof. All these
features forced me to buy products from the said store. This behavior
demonstrates pattern of my continuous purchase build a trusting relationship
and loyalty. Whenever I found outlet of that store nearby my location I will
defiantly go there to buy product instead of other which will be called brand
loyalty.

Example
of Brand Loyalty scale

Customer
Complaints

Brand
loyalty and customer complaints are considered consequences of customer satisfaction
which are derived from the exit-voice theory (Hirschman, 1970). According to
this theory consumer have a choice of two options when dissatisfy with the
organization; one is to stop the use of product or services (exit) and second
is to raise a complaint (voice). As the customer satisfaction also generates
the loyalty. Thus, loyalty modifies the dissatisfaction level and pushed the
customer to raise the voice (complaint) against the concerns with product or
services instead of leaving or stopping to use or even shifting.

London
(1980) defines a customer complaint as an expression of dissatisfaction on a
customer’s behalf to a responsible party.

For
example when a customer buys a product from a Shirt & Tie shop and
experienced that product is not stitched in mentioned size or fabric is not a
good quality then customer may be visit the shop again and complained about the
product either for exchange or resizing of the product.  However if customer does not complaint, may
be stop to buying again and considered brands available in the market.

 

 

Example of scale:

Main Stream
Theories:

This
phenomenon is based on customer’s perception and theoretical underpinning of
assimilation theory, hypothesis theory, exit-voice theory and relationship
commitment-trust theory.

This
phenomenon is theoretical underpinned on the assimilation theory which argues
that satisfaction and expectation has a relationship and consumer are adjust
their experience accordingly that occurs as a result of comparing service
performance against expectations’. Hypothesis theory backed up the model as
researcher is trying to test and measure the consumer’s perceptions and
expectation and their relationship by using modified SERQUAL model.

Relationship
commitment-trust theory is backed the phenomenon because commitment and trust
are necessary to achieve customer loyalty in the airline industry between the
service provider and customer. Commitment in the sense to provide safe and
secure services and conveying updated information during the journey for
winning the confidence of the customer (trust).

Theory
of contrast, assimilation-contrast, and generalized negativity are opposing
theories of expectancy disconfirmation theory. They argued that customer
satisfaction is latitude of acceptance or magnify of the discrepancy which
consumer adjust according to the fulfillment of the expectation.

This
theory argues that there are two types of responses to unsatisfactory situation
in one’s firm, organization or country. The first is exit and second is voice,
exit means leaving without trying to fix things and voice means speaking up and
trying to remedy the defects.

 

Further Research
Opinion

 

In
my point of view further research can be conducted by using customer
satisfaction model by introducing customer services mediator role between
customer satisfaction and customer complaints. It is important to consider both
customer and service provider interactions. The emphasis is on the joint
behaviors of the actors. The Setting the organization provides help to determine
the content of the employee role which in turn is affected by the customer
role. This examines of service encounters permits us to develop general
principles applicable in a range of service settings across individual role
performers.  According to Goofin and
Price (1996) customer service has importance because it ends in increasing
product quality, gaining competitive advantage, gaining profitable
opportunities and as a result increasing sales and income. According to Newby
& McManus (2000) excellent quality of customer services is based upon not
just the knowledge and skills of the individual but also upon the way that the
organization as a whole, from top management downwards, pulls in the same
direction and presents a clear, positive message to customers. (Purposed Model)

 

 

Customer
Services

 

Customer
services helps to solve the complaints and helps the firm to know the passenger’s
expectation and concerns and in return positive effect increase the customer
satisfaction and loyalty.

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