The word “speech” is generally used to refer to verbal
communication as well as nonverbal. In addition, the term includes written or
visual forms of expression, along with non-verbal forms of communicating such
as parades, insignia, armbands, and picket lines. (Kaminskaya, N.D).
topic of this paper concerns speeches containing hate and discrimination
directed against targeted groups. Defamation of a group through history was
restricted to race, religion, and ethnicity. Currently, it is internationally
agreed upon to make hate speech illegal because of all the harm it causes. When
hate speech is allowed, especially in today’s media, it encourages disparage of
certain groups of people and for that behaviour to be accepted and treated
normally. That results in harm to the targeted groups and creates conflict in
the community, and perpetuates inequality. Discourse analysts have said that
racism is taught and justified by public discourse. This is because society
seldom values racist speech, which harms that society by degrading people, not
treating like human beings, denying their entitlement to basic human rights,
exposing them to violence, as well as it being undignifying to them. (Hernández, 2010).
Other research has shown that the main
body and source of racism in many countries around the world is not individual
experiences but rather from the racist discourse spread through public speech
and the prejudice media. Studies by social psychologists have shown that
implied biased attitudes and beliefs are acquired largely through passive
exposure to major media sources and other forms of public discourse. That, in turn, can extend and offend
inequalities in society, such as in the workplace, at home, or elsewhere. (Hernández, 2010). Studies have shown, as a matter of
fact, that when people are surrounded by situations where they are continuously
exposed to racially insensitive examples of African Americans, they will show
responses of a higher rate of implicit bias compared to their exposure to
non-racial or positive images of African Americans.
To summarise, hate speech is believed to
let out racism in people, which results in an increase in hate crimes instead
of decreasing them, and an environment and society that contains racist public
discourse increases indirect prejudice and its influence on racist behaviour.