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When we find ourselves with the results of the research, we often stumble upon the meaning of it. So we turn to mathematics to reveal to us the magnitude of what we have discovered. 3A) A statistical test can be used to measure the test scores between the students who attended SI sessions and the students who didn’t. For example, we can find the difference by calculating the range of quizzes, homework and test scores from the students at-risk of who attended and the students at-risk of who did not. 3B) The variation between groups can be calculated through standard deviation. The first thing we need to do is to find the difference, which is calculated by taking each difference of all three groups, and then squaring the average results. This has to be done twice since there are two experimental groups. 3C) Statistical significance is the probability that the results of statistical test are not by chance. Statistical significance can be either weak or strong, for instance if the statistical significance is low, that the means it is least likely because of chance. I would conclude that the difference between groups is statistically significant if the difference of the averages of the groups is bigger than two. If the at-risk students who attend SI sessions receive grades with B’s or higher compared to students who did not attend the SI sessions, who still receive C’s and below would lead me to believe that the statistical significance is strong.

At the end the data has been collected the discoveries has been proved, the only thing left to do is to improve and learn from our findings. 4A) Dr. Steph’s conclusion is incorrect because the students who visited her were not out of a random sample from at-risk students. This clearly shows bias and also we do not know for sure the other variables that might come into play, such as outside work, class schedule, free time, and disabilities. 4B) It is possible that the at-risk pilot participants actually have much better course performance than the comparison pilot participants because there were only two volunteers compared to the size of the population of the comparison group. We also do not know what treatment the two groups got, perhaps the two students probably had more personal learning from the pilot study. Hence, this shows that this study does not represent the population because of the lack of descent amount of participants and lack of variable control. 4C) The SI had nothing to do with the difference between groups in the pilot study because the real source of this difference could be that the pilot experimental group could have already been doing better than the pilot control group, the pilot experimental group could have received outside help/resources or the control group could not have received any form of SI. 4D) I would recommend that Dr. Steph to gather more students through random sample for her pilot study. Overall Dr. Steph needs to provide a larger sample size and give both groups same level of treatment as much as possible. For instance, if you have a large experimental group, you should have a large control group as well.

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