The is the presence of numerous vaccines which

The current
increase in world’s population is tremendously affecting food production
including the production of hogs and poultry. Production of non-ruminants
impacts the economy and social livelihoods of people and the nation as a whole.
To begin, the production positively impacts the economy and livelihoods of
people as it can be used to provide households with incomes. Secondly, it is an
important source of proteins which is one of the most required nutrients on the
well being of individuals. Thirdly, it provides food security in certain ways
such as contributing to the practices of mixed farming, utilizes nutrients, maintaining
biodiverse genomes and recycling in the environment. Fourthly, they may
contribute to the goals of sustainable development in the United States and
other countries around the globe. These aspects indicate how important the
production is to individuals and the nation. Sadly, there are various
biological constraints of non-ruminant production that leads to the reduction
and limits the process. This paper will explain the biological constraints
including disease and environment, growth, cartilage and bone metabolism,
genetics and metabolism that impact the production of non-ruminants.

            Previously,
most farmers faced major challenges when it came to the health of their
animals, since most diseases did not have treatments leading to death of these
animals. Nevertheless, technological advancement and the effort of most
scientists have led to the introduction of treatments and vaccinations. These
medicines have prolonged the health of these animals and reduced the adverse
effects of the diseases (Ball, Etches, Hacker, &
Morrison, 1986).
Nevertheless, a continuous production of the small ruminants may lead to a
reduced production, such that; specific disease organism caused by the animals
may limit the production. This occurs when the older animals carry certain
viruses which may affect the young ones. Interestingly, health issue is still a
major constraint to efficient production calling upon interventions that may
enhance the health of these animals. One of the interventions is the presence
of numerous vaccines which appear to have attractive results (Schillhorn, 2014). These vaccines have been able to
prevent and protect the animals from contracting certain diseases which were
difficult to manage before. For example, the young animals can be vaccinated
against the viruses that the older animals were reported to have in the past.
This protects them from any possible harm. Besides, the bioengineered vaccines
developed in Europe and USA for the non-ruminant animals can also function in
other continents such as Africa, Asia and Australia.

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            Besides, the treatments and vaccines
provided, it is vital for the animal keepers to ensure that the environments of
the animals are conducive for production. This includes isolation of the
breeding animals to ensure that they are well taken care of and that they do
not contract any diseases from the other animals. Also, the buildings must be
well ventilated to ensure adequate circulation of air and reduction of
air-borne diseases. The management of these animals play an important role on
the production process of the non-ruminant animals. For ages, animals have been
living in environments that continually change and those that are quite
complex. But these environments allowed the animals to continuously adapt to
new surroundings and respond easily to variations in certain factors such as
nutrition, socio-sexual signals and photoperiod (Marti, Rodger, & Blache, 2004). Therefore, the
management and domestication of these animals should ensure that they are
provided with an environment that allows them to utilize their reproductive
strategies that allowed them to adapt to change faster.

            The process of body alterations that
was used to improve the body composition of the animals especially pigs.
However, they adversely affected the animals’ ability to resist to change,
stress and their ability to reproduce(Ball, Etches, Hacker, & Morrison, 1986). This is because the
chemicals alter the hormones of the animals which in return tempers with their
reproduction ability. Also, the selections of animals with improved body mass
or with faster growing genes also impact the socio-sexual ability of these
animals. These manipulations may be effective when it comes to meat mass, but
when it comes to the production process, it is ineffective. This is because the
manipulations affect the animals’ ability to resist to any changes that may
occur, making it difficult for the animals to reproduce.

Also,
when the farmers and keepers concentrate on increasing or improving the growth
of the non-ruminant animals, it is imperative that they consider the increased
amino acids caused by the alterations. Increased amino acids not only affect
the consumers but the animals as well. According to Ball, Etches and Hacker,
the presence of ratios of large neutral amino acids in the brain or blood may
impact the eating habits of the animals. These changes may be advantageous but
excess amounts of amino acid may be damaging to the digestion system of the
animals (Powley, 2015). The right amount of amino acid in
animals’ system improves their nutrient intake which results to growth and good
health. Nevertheless, non-ruminants cannot digest every carbohydrates, fats or
proteins taken in (Siwa, et al., 2014). Only the metabolized portions can be
digested and in return provide the essential nutrients.

            Importantly, non-ruminant animals
have digestion defects, in that, they have little ability to absorb and digest
fiber. Therefore, adequate levels of forage diet production may not sustain
them (Cardozzo, 2015). The fact that they cannot absorb
fibers effectively means that the intake should be limited. On the other hand,
pregnant sows can be given these feeds since to deal with their increased
appetite. Pigs and poultry can be fed nutrient-dense diets which allow them to
absorb more nutrients compared to fibrous or forage feeds. Most significantly,
animal keepers 

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