Theoretical models that under pin health promotion and
This essay will attempt to explain, the health belief model
and the social identity theory, also it will look at the stages around the
Social identity theory:
(britannica.com. 19 Jan. 2018.)
The Social Identity
Theory was developed to explain how individuals create and define their “place”
Tajfel and Turner’s social identity
theory says that an individuals perception of themselves and others is taken
from the group or groups that they belong to. Individuals do not have specific behavioural or personal characteristics that
they are reconsider or categorised by; this is determined by the groups there
are in or many traits or actions they have. A person will act differently
depending on the social context they are in or are used to; this could be
anything from their friends at home, friends at schooling, work, hobbies, gym
or a team they are part of and many more, in each situation individuals act
differently depending on what they think Is acceptable or will make them more
person becomes conscious of themselves as part of a group, that is called their
ingroup. All groups that a person does not consciously belong to are their outgroups.
We perceive it then as us instead of them; this changes the situation in our
minds when it comes to our ingroups and their outgroups.
Tajfel (1979) “suggested that groups (e.g. social class, family,
football team etc.) which people belonged to be an important source of pride
and self-esteem. Groups give us a sense of social identity: a sense of
belonging to the social world.”
There are three processes that make up this theory:
This is the tendency individuals have where they perceive themselves and others
in to certain social categories.
People categorize to try and understand
and identify themselves and others. Some examples of social categories include
black, white, working class, student, Republican, and Democrat. By knowing, we
can understand things clearer, and we can define appropriate behaviour
according to the groups that we and others belong to. An individual can belong
to several groups at the same time.
Using this method means a campaign can
be made for a wide target audience. It can be made relatable to many
individuals and groups at the same time as certain points from each group can
be brought out in diverse ways.
individuals determine the value or social standing of this group or an
individual in that group.
This helps explain
prejudice and discrimination, since a group will tend to view members of competing
groups negatively to increase self-esteem.
After we have our
groups and are in categories, we then look at these groups differently and then
judge other groups we are not categorised with and compare our groups with
others. To make sure we keep self-esteem, a group and its intermediate members
will compare themselves and their associated group and favour their group
against any other. This explains some discrimination.
ourselves or others become a smoke screen effect when we take in to account the
perceptions of others from the group we are in. self- esteem and what we think
of another person or group is enhanced or detracted by perceptions of how in
and out groups behave or are supposed to perform/act in society.
Therefore, this theory is a good one
to follow when creating a campaign or trying to promote a campaign; this theory
gives them a chance to have many strategies within a campaign.
(Learning Theories, 2018)
generally don’t perceive social situations as detached observers. It is some
individuals own perception of people based on their own sense of who they are
and how they relate to other individuals and more so from the way others and
groups around them see them or act.
A group adopt the identity
in which they belong, and we act in ways that we perceive members of that group
act. For example, if you identify as a footballer, you will most likely behave
within the norms of that group. (Simplypsychology.org,
2018). As a consequence of
your identification with a group, you will develop emotional significance to
that identification, and your self-esteem will be dependent on it.
This can be taken in to account when
creating a campaign and keeping it relevant. Using the social identity theory
means we can use the way an individual sees themselves and show how others see
them too; this is usually different in both cases so showing any anxiety or
depression is more than likely unnecessary. For example if someone thinks they
are less than someone else based on the amount of friends they have they are
more likely to have anxiety but when they see that a celebrity deals with
anxiety and depression and also doesn’t have many actual friend, they will
realise they are not alone.
The health belief model (HBM) was first
developed in the 1950s by social psychologists Hochbaum, Rosenstock and Kegels working in the
U.S. Public Health Services.
(Universiteit Twente, 2018)
The Health Belief Model (HBM) is a
psychological model that
attempts to explain and predict health
behaviours. This is done by focusing on the attitudes and beliefs of individuals. The HBM has
been adapted to explore a variety of long- and short-term health behaviours.
The HBM assumes that
people are largely rational in their thoughts and actions, meaning this was a
There are 6
stages of the health belief model; perceived susceptibility (vulnerability);
perceived severity; perceived benefits, perceived barriers, cues of action and
susceptibility; we use this in relation to health promotions by conducting case
studies, using and creating statistics means we can make it relatable. Perceived
also called perceived vulnerability,
refers to one’s perception of
the risk or the chances of contracting a health disease or condition (Witte,
1992). It also can include estimates of re-susceptibility and susceptibility to illness in
general (Rosenstock, Strecher, & Becker, 1994).
severity; this refers
to the degree people deem a disease or condition is serious. This includes how people perceive negative consequences associated
with an event or outcome.
benefits; this is when some individual weighs up the benefits and negatives. It
refers to the perception of the positive consequences that are caused by a
specific action. In medicine, the term perceived benefit is frequently used to
explain an individual’s motives of performing a behaviour after treatment. Attempts
are made by many to measure positive perceptions because this is what drives an
individual’s cognition in relation to acceptability, motives and attitudes
toward such behaviours.
barriers; this is when someone would not do something because in their head
they do not feel they will stick to this, so they don’t want to start and then
it be negative when they do stop. This is measured with case studies and
statistics. Perceived barriers are an individual’s assessment of the possible
obstacles that could change the behaviour they want to. The perceived benefits
will always have to be greater than the barrier against why we want to change.
For example if someone is ill as knows a certain behavioural change would
benefit this, barriers could
still prevent the change in the health-promoting behaviour.
Cues of action; this
is when action is taken, if someone with an illness was seen then people are
likely to get the help they need this is called a trigger. This is used as a
shock tactic for many reason as it works very well; this is necessary for
prompting engagement in health-promoting behaviours.
relates to the self-belief one has in themselves, how effective one is in doing
it. Self-efficacy refers to an individual’s perception of his or her competence
to successfully perform a behaviour.