This design processes are changing, the design specifications

This thesis tries to find out the effects of International
Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS) rules on design and production
of cargo ships. When considering the SOLAS rules, it is mostly focused on the
rules regarding the structure of ships, subdivision and damage stability of
cargo ships and machine installations which are highly related to design and
production of cargo ships. Some basic design methods such as Rules Design
Method (RDM) and Interpolation Design Method (IDM) are utilized and some basic
design parameters such as Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI) including
speed, main engine power and hull shape are investigated. The brief history of
SOLAS is given and the additions to the SOLAS by time are outlined. The
relation between SOLAS rules and the cargo ship design is explained. Basic
design and production processes with respect to SOLAS rules are researched and
reviewed. The rapid industrialization in the past hundred years
and the increasing production rate and liberalizing economy has led to the
improvements in the trade between countries and continents as well as with the
increasing demand and consumption and enhancing communication channels. With
all these reasons the 90% of the goods transportation of the whole world is
being conducted via sea transportation. Not only the goods transportation but
also passenger transportation by ships has been improved due to the
enhancements of the welfare of the humanity in the late 20th
century. By the increase of the sea traffic there also arises some concerns
such as terror attacks, accidents, explosions etc. Therefore the need for
internationally approved standards of sea activities has led the governments to
establish a relevant code of conduct which is to regulate the security aspects
of sea transportation. 

With rapid changes in the industrial design such as
the era of the industry 4.0, the design and the production processes of cargo
ships are being updated in short time periods. Whereas design processes are
changing, the design specifications are also changing parallel with the demands
of the market. The recent trends in international trade mostly specify the
design specifications. If we consider containerized cargo ships, the speed and
the robustness are important factors. One should also keep in mind that the
costs in fuel and resistances may lead to inefficient designs. We can say that
the energy efficiency parameter is one of the main tasks in the design process.
Also the crew positions and roles are important and essential in the design
process. We cannot avoid human factor in all the steps of the design and the
production. On the other hand the updates in SOLAS rules also create new
constraints to the designers and manufacturers. Thus when designing a cargo
ship, one must follow a complex and strict code of rules in order to be viable
with respect to SOLAS rules and design criteria.This thesis mainly aims to outline the effects of
SOLAS rules on design and production of cargo ships. When doing so, the SOLAS
rules on structure of ships, subdivision and damage stability of cargo ships
and machine installations are highly used as references. SOLAS stands for the International Convention for
Safety of Life at Sea. SOLAS does not have one single unit. It can be thought
as a combination of internationally approved laws and rules regarding the
safety of life at sea including all kinds of activities such as trade and
transportation. Actually the idea of SOLAS came up to mind during 1910s after
the disaster of Titanic. The international institutions working on maritime
affairs tried to develop international standards since then. These institutions
got together several times in order to reach to an internationally approved act
of treaty. The initial regulations are accepted just after the Titanic
disaster. Within the time lots of conferences are held and the number of the
approved regulations has become higher. The most recent conference was held in
November 1st of 1974 leaded by International Maritime Organization
(IMO), a subdivision of the United Nations.  The convention accepted in 1974 came into
effect in 1980. Until then there were also lots of updates and amendments.
Today what we call as SOLAS is the act which is combined in 2004. Since SOLAS is an international paper and signed by
162 states, the rules included in SOLAS is applied to those ships which have
international routes. Additionally, the flag of the ship determines the country
of responsibility. The SOLAS rules have different sections from varying
safety areas. These sections can be named as construction, subdivision, damage
stability, machine installation and electricity system under the ship safety
main section, fire detection, fire containment and fire extinction under the
fire safety main section. There also exists safety of navigation, lifesaving,
radio communication, safety of cargo sections. Totally SOLAS has 12 chapters. First chapter of SOLAS includes the general
applications, the regulations about the construction of the survey of different
vessels, the documentation based on the SOLAS and the control activities at the
ports of signatory states.SOLAS Chapter II-1 includes the rules regarding
structure of ships, subdivision and damage stability, machine installation and
electrical installations. This part focuses on the capability of the ship to
stay stable after a possible collision. The ship should be able to meet the
rules about having watertight compartments in order to sustain the stability
after the collision. For this purpose the structural design of the ship should
meet these rules. Chapter II-2 includes rules about fire safety, fire
detection and fire cautions. Chapter III includes the regulations about life saving
devices and equipments and technical details. Chapter IV includes the standards
about the radio and telegram communication systems of the vessels. In
compliance with the radio regulation of International Telecommunication Union
(ITU), this chapter regulates the general provisions related with Global
Maritime Danger and Security Systems (GMDSS) such as the obligation of the 300
GTs and above vessels to have the devices of Emergency Position Indicating
Radio Beacons (EPIRBs) and Search and Rescue Transponders (SARTs). Chapter V is mostly about navigation security. It
outlines the services that the signatory states should offer to all
international vessels regarding navigation security. This chapter states the
obligation of mounting Automatic Identification System (AIS) to specific
vessels. Chapter VI regulates the provisions regarding the loading and
transporting of all kind of cargo except liquid and gas.Chapter VII includes the terms about transportation of
dangerous goods. In this Chapter, it is pointed out that the usage of International
Maritime Dangerous Goods (IMDGs) Code, International Bulk Chemical Code (IBC
Code), International Gas Carrier Code (IGC Code) and International Code for the
Safe Carriage of Packaged Irradiated Nuclear Fuel, Plutonium and High-Level
Radioactive Wastes on Board Ships (INF Code) is mandatory. Chapter VIII regulates nuclear vessels and states that
it is mandatory to use Code of Safety for Nuclear Merchant Ships (CSNMS).
Chapter IX regulates the security management systems. In this chapter it is stated
that to use the International Safety Management (ISM) Code is mandatory.Chapter X regulates the security issues of high speed
vessels. In this chapter it is stated that to use the International Code of
Safety for High-Speed Craft (HSC Code) is mandatory.Chapter XI deals with the precautions that need to be
taken by the signatory states in order to enhance the security of the sea and
navigation. International Ship and Port Facilities Security Code (ISPS Code)
appears in this chapter. Chapter XII includes additional provisions for
structure of the vessels with minimum 150 meters long and which carry cast
loads.As it is seen above SOLAS has a very wide scope with
respect to the needs of the maritime sector. It can be said that every year the
SOLAS is being updated. Turkey is also one of the signatory states of SOLAS. It
is obvious that SOLAS has a high enforcement power over the governments.In this thesis it is not deeply focused on all the
chapters of SOLAS. We will be mostly interested in first part of Chapter II in
which structure of ships, subdivision and damage stability, machine
installation and electrical installations are regulated. These regulations are
directly related to the design and production process of a cargo ship.As it is outlined before SOLAS is dictating the
security functions to the ship producers. Thus a designer should always keep in
mind these rules while performing his/her designs tasks. Even though
profitability is highly important for designers, security concerns also should
be taken necessary consideration. There should be a balance between these two
issues. As SOLAS rules are changing every year, designers also should be
flexible in their design selections and decisions in order to be adaptable in
their following design procedures through following years.In the recent years, designers are heavily working on
to find a solution to reduce the effect of the human factor to a minimum level.
Actually the background of SOLAS rules relies on protecting the human life at
sea. To comply with the SOLAS rules, designers try to find a way to build up
autonomous ships without crew on board which can be remotely controlled from a
specific point such as control unit on the port. In the near future it is
possible to see autonomous ships on their route all around the world. In such a
scenario, the SOLAS rules will be definitely updated in order to take cautions
to this new incident. In fact, the autonomous ships are likely to be more
efficient, eco-friendly and safer for humans. This thesis is aimed to investigate the effects of
SOLAS rules on design and production of cargo ships. In order to do so we need
to understand the SOLAS rules very well. The nature of the SOLAS rules is
trying to protect the human life and to be respectful to the nature. A designer
should not think that SOLAS rules are trying to make things more difficult and
less efficient. On the contrary these rules help designers to create more
sustainable and safe ships. The SOLAS rules include some formulas for the specific
parameters. For instance in the Part B-1- Regulation 25-3 of CHAPTER-II-1 –
Construction – Structure, subdivision and stability, machinery and electrical
installations, Required subdivision index R is defined as below:1-    For ships over 100 m in Ls: R=(0.002 + 0.0009Ls)1/3                        Where
Ls is in meters; and2-    For ships of 80 m in Ls and upwards but not
exceeding 100 m in length Ls : R = 1 – 1/(1+((Ls/100)x(Ro/1-Ro)))
  Where Ro is the value R, as calculated in
accordance with the formula given in the subparagraph 1.   Ls is the subdivision length of the ship. It is the greatest projected moulded length
of that part of the ship at or below deck or decks limiting the vertical extent
of flooding with the ship at the deepest subdivision load line1.In the same regulation it is mentioned that these
regulations are intended to provide ships with a minimum standard of
subdivision and the degree of subdivision to be provided shall be determined by
the required subdivision index R, as
given above1.  Permeability
(?) of a space is the
proportion of the immersed volume of that space which can be occupied by water
1. In the Regulation 25-7 of the same chapter and part
permeability of each space or part of a space is defined as below:

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Appropriated to stores


Occupied by accommodation


Occupied by machinery


Void spaces


Dry cargo spaces


Intended for liquid

0 or 0.95

 These permeability
values are used in the subdivision and damage stability calculations.In addition to
Required Subdivision Index R and Permeability ?, there are other parameters and factors defined in
SOLAS rules such as Attained Subdivision Index A, Factor Pi,
Factor Si. These parameters and factors are taken into
account by designers with high attention.As it is seen, there
are several points outlined in SOLAS rules which are directly affecting the
design and production process of cargo ships. In the following parts
of the thesis the relation between SOLAS rules and the design and production
process of a cargo ship will be investigated.  1.1  Design and Production
of Cargo Ships To design and produce
a cargo ship is a complex process and needs to have a collaboration of
different disciplines of engineering and other expertise. In this thesis it is
tried to cover a general design and production process of a cargo ship related
with the effects of SOLAS rules. Ships can be
categorized into different classes such as cargo ships, passenger ships, Ro-Ro
passenger ships, ferry, leisure boats etc. In this thesis we are interested in
cargo ships. Cargo ships can also be classified as dry cargo carrying ships,
liquid cargo carrying ships, liquefied gas carrying ships, container ships and
car carrier ships. Dry bulk cargo carrier ships mostly carry agricultural
commodities or metal ores and commodities. Liquid bulk cargo carrier ships
mostly carry petroleum products. Liquefied gas carrier ships mostly carry
Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) and Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG). Passenger ships
are used for people’s travel demand. The size of the ship is determined by the
length of the destination and the purpose of usage. Ro-Ro passenger ships are
used for both carrying passengers and trucks loaded with commodities. This type
of ship is useful for fast logistics operations. Container ships are also very
important in cargo carrying operations. Instead of bulk commodities,
specialized products can be carried by container cargo ships. Container cargo
ships mostly carry sensitive and critical products. For instance a Turkish
mining company gave an order of a rock grinding machine from China. The
manufacturing company should send this machine parts by a container ship since
each part of the machine is very sensitive. It should be noted that the
operation is not completed when the cargo is arrived to the buyer. The
manufacturing company sends its staff to the buyer’s facility in order to do
the mounting and give training. For this reason the parts should not be damaged
during the transportation. Since container cargo ships carry sensitive
products, the designers take this point into account during their design process.Before going through
the design process, a designer should identify the design requirements very
well. In this phase the designer collects all the data needed for the
requirements. The information about the operation of the ship can be useful. The
requirements might be standard for specific models or optional for the
customer. The operation route of the ship, i.e. length of the destination is
important for the design. If the ship is intended to navigate deep seas, the
design requirements will be suitable for this intention. The route of the
operation should also be utilized. If the ship is intended to pass from the Suez
Channel for instance, the conditions and limitations of this channel should be
analyzed very carefully. Also SOLAS rules regarding passing from a channel
should be considered. Another point is about the ports that the ship is
intended to visit. The special applications at the ports should be noted before
the design process. Design requirements also include the size, hull shape,
speed, power, fuel efficiency, loading and unloading mechanisms etc. When
deciding on these requirements SOLAS rules always behave as a supervisor to the
designer. When deciding on the hull shape for instance, SOLAS rules about
damage stability helps the designer to take into consideration. It is advised
to assess the drawings periodically with consulting teams in order to be in
compliance with SOLAS rules. Once design
requirements are identified, the designer goes through the following step in
the process. The amount of cargo that the ship can carry with specific maximum
speed and under the size limitations is very crucial for the design process.
This data will determine several constraints. A good design of a
cargo ship should also be competing with the existing cargo ships. For this
reason the designer needs to make the self weight and the propulsion power of
the ship lower compared with the other existing ships on the market. With a
capable design the strength, stability, durability and the robustness of the
ship will be high and the lifetime service of the ship will be long enough. There
is an important parameter called Block
Coefficient (Cb) which is used in the beginning of each ship
design process. Block Coefficient can be defined as the ratio of the underwater
volume of the ship to the volume of a rectangular block having the same overall
length, breadth and depth. Figure 1. General Illustration of Block Coefficient Figure 1 shows a
general view of block coefficient. With the dimensions given in the figure, the
block coefficient can be calculated as:Cb = Volume
of the yellow part / LxBxd The ship form lines
can be drawn after the block coefficient is determined. Based on the self
weight, power and speed values, the hull form lines are determined using an
optimization process. This process is an iterative process and computer aided
methods are heavily used in this phase. The structure of the
ship should be designed based on the SOLAS rules especially the damage
stability rules. The strength of the ship should be longitudinal, transversal
and local. The longitudinal strength resists to the longitudinal bending and
shear loads. The transversal strength resists to the racking and twisting load
as well as transversal bending and shear loads. Figure2. Some basic loads on a cargo ship The longitudinal
strength of a cargo ship comes from skin plating around the main hull and
longitudinal strength members. On the other hand the transversal strength comes
from transverse web frames and transverse bulkheads. The hull of the ship is
extremely big and the clothing of the hull is done by the panel members. Thus
the calculation of the strength around the hull is a complicated process. Thanks
to the computer aided methods this phase is held by computerized systems.In every design
process the aim is to maximize the storing area and to minimize the other areas
such as engine room, accommodation areas etc. Also considering the SOLAS rules
accommodation areas should be strong enough in any possible damage situation.
Engine room and accommodation areas usually designed at the stern part of the
ship. The strength of the stern is another design goal of the designers. Based
on the SOLAS rules the subdivision of the compartmentation should be watertight
and stable. According to Pounder and Conn, the ship design should
provide satisfactory steering characteristics and freedom from troublesome
vibration and compliance with SOLAS rules 2.Figure3. A typical ship building areaAccording to Chakraborty, the hull geometry of a cargo
ship is highly related to the function of the ship 3. The author
outlines that the hull geometry of a container cargo ship and an oil tanker
would be totally different from each other due to the different speed
expectations from these ships. The geometry of the hull determines the speed of
the ship. The high speed cargo ships should have minimum hull resistance in
order to reach expected speed levels.Watson and Gilfillan states that when designing container
cargo ships, the limitations of the container tiers should be determined in a
good way in order to keep the balance on the ship 4. The weights
of the containers should not be the same at different tiers, i.e. the lower
tiers should have the heavier containers. The authors points out the importance
of the length/beam ratio, a design constraint which determines the number of
container rows in the length of the ship.Vossen, et. al., defines the compliance between the
design process and international regulations, namely SOLAS rules as external
requirements. The authors point out the importance to this compliance as well
as safe and secure shipping.  The authors
give some details about spiral design process which is shown in Figure 4.Figure4. Ship Design Spiral (Evans, 1959)  Vossen, et. al., underlines that international rules
and regulations are getting more stringent with respect to environmental
concerns and safety aspects 5. 
In this thesis Rules Design Method (RDM) and Interpolation
Design Method (IDM) are utilized. These methods are included in so called
Knowledge Based Engineering (KBE). KBE is a phenomenon which can provide a
chance to test the existing design solutions with respect to the determined set
of certain design parameters and also to assist the designer in the overall
design process. Even though CAD/CAM software systems are heavily used in cargo
ship design process, manual interaction by the designer should be present in
each steps of the design process in order to supply the coherence between
actual design and digital design.In naval design area there are not several knowledge
based methods and approaches. Designers use limited number of open standards
and formats for some specific kinds of knowledge representation which are
related to data modeling and data exchange. Rules Design Method suggests some certain rules in the
design process and works on existing facts memory. If any addition to the
design process in the means of a parameter is needed, the existing rule updates
itself based on the design targets. Interpolation Design Method uses the interpolation of
set of curves in order to generate surfaces in the skinning process, let’s say
for hull design for instance. There are different numerical approaches in this
kind of design method. This thesis will utilize this method by comparing some
approaches and giving relevant details of application.                       REFERENCES1 SOLAS – International Convention for the Safety of
Life at Sea – Lloyd’s Register  
Rulefinder 2005 – Version 9.42 Ship Construction – Cuthbert Coulson Pounder, J.
F. C. Conn, retrieved from https://www.britannica.com3 Understanding Design of Container Ships – Soumya Chakraborty,
Naval Architecture, 08.10.2017. 4 Some Ship Design Methods – D.G.M. Watson, A.W.
Gilfillan, The Royal Institution of Naval Architects, Glasgow, 09.11.1976.

5 Ship Design and System Integration – Christina
Vossen, Robert Kleppe, Randi Hjorungnes, Rolls-Royce Marine AS, 003.03.2015.