Throughout this assignment I will be looking at and explaining the different types of counselling and the different techniques that are used, I will also explore Carl Rogers and his theory and make reference to him. I will also be critiquing a video which includes a counsellor and a client. I will point out the strengths and weaknesses throughout the video. When critiquing the video I will also look what could be improved and I will be referencing Carl Rogers theory whilst explaining the strengths, weaknesses and improvements.
Counselling allows people to discuss their difficult feelings and problems they have or will encounter in a safe, confidential environment. The term “counselling” can mean many different things to different people, generally counselling can be a long or short process people look for when they want to differentiate something in their lives or they just want to look into their thoughts and feelings in greater depth. A counsellor will encourage a client to talk about different things that are bothering them in order to uncover any weaknesses. Counsellors are not there to sit people down and tell you what to do or judge you, they are there to listen and to find a solution. A counsellor may look to create an action plan to either help a client to find ways of coping with difficult issues.
There a many different types and techniques of counselling such as, face to face counselling which is when an appointment is made with a counsellor to see them in person/face to face. Fave to face counselling is a very popular counselling format as they offer the opportunity for the client to express any emotions that appear in the session. There is individual and group therapy which could be another option for a person who wishes to see a counsellor but with a group who are encountering very similar concerns. Group counselling can be very helpful for a person if they want to discus their problems and issues with other people who are facing the same problem, it can also open opportunities for the person to gain a support network of similar people.
The founder of client centred therapy is considered to be Carl Rogers.”Humanistic” therapies, are the new and improved therapies, many psychologists have agreed to the development, Carl Rogers lead the increase of therapy with his approach. He used client centred therapy to show people that they have power and motivation to help themselves. Carl Rogers believed that for a person to “grow” and that they need to be provided with genuineness (openness and self-disclosure), being seen with unconditional positive which makes them want to feel accepted, they also want to be shown that they are being listened to and understood which is empathy. One of Carl Rogers most important contributions was when self actualisation took place, and he believed that every person could achieve their different goals, wishes and desires that they had in life. Self actualisation took place when people did achieve what they wanted to and when they wanted to. Carl Rogers had the idea that people have control in their own destinies and that individuals behave in what ever way they want. “The organism has one basic tendency and striving – to actualise, maintain, and enhance the experiencing organism” (Rogers, 1951, p. 487).
During the counselling session the counsellor a different amount of approaches to the client. The counsellor started the session explaining to the client about confidentiality and that the counsellor would only need to breach the confidentiality if the client was being harmful to themselves or others. The counsellor looks to be engaged during the start of the session with the head nods when the client is talking, this shows that the counsellor is actively listening to the client. The counsellor uses a very gentle tone which when asking questions to the client this helps the client feel more comfortable when talking to the counsellor. The counsellor uses unconditional positive regard and shows acceptance to the client, and that there is no judgment to the clients feelings. Carl Rogers said that to help a person during person centred therapy there needs to be three conditions that need to be used and they are known as empathy, congruence and unconditional positive regard. Rogers, C. (1980). Way of Being. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. The counsellor asks the client questions to do with the issues that they have spoken about, but the counsellor could’ve asked the client a lot more different questions to help the counsellor understand the different feelings the client is feeling. The counsellor also didn’t interrupt the client as the counsellor was encouraging the client find the answer in themselves. Carl Rogers had belief in positive human nature proven and his theory had the ability to allow and encourage the client to find and discover a route towards their greatest potential. It has be proven to be beneficial for thousands. Simply allowing a client to reach their own conclusions which some people may find it an empowering experience. Rogers, C.R. (1959) A theory of therapy, personality and interpersonal relationships as developed in the client-centred framework. In Koch, S. (Ed.). Psychology: A study of a science. Vol. III. Formulations of the person and the social context. McGraw Hill. Throughout the session the counsellor has shown empathy towards the client by listening to them and understanding their situation, the counsellor could’ve shown a lot more empathy by letting the client speak but also replying to them in some way letting the client know that the counsellor understands. “True empathy is always free of any evaluative or diagnostic quality. This comes across to the recipient with some surprise. “If I am not being judged, perhaps I am not so evil or abnormal as I have thought”. – Carl Rogers.