Translation: break by an enzyme peptidyl transferase. the





            Ribosomes are involved in the
synthesis of protein from mRNA is called translation.

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of t RNA in Translation:

RNA plays  significant role in
translation. tRNA encodes  mRNA and carries
altered amino acids. As a result a polypeptide chain is emerged. The t RNA has opposite
pairing of bases. But t RNA has some unfamiliar bases. these unfamiliar bases
disrupt the normal base pairing and give rise to a loop in the molecule. The
center loop is called the anticodon loop. It has a arrangement of three
unpaired bases anticodon. The mRNA codon form pairing with its opposite
anticodon of t RNA. The t RNA carries amino acids.

of ribosomes in Translation:

are the locations of the protein synthesis. They consists of large and small
subunits. These subunits bring together the pairing between the codon and
anticodon. Ribosomes consist of several binding sites for mRNA and t RNA.



has three basic sites

a.       P
site (Peptidyl site): it is the site of the ribosomes where peptide bonds are

b.      A
site (Aminoacyl site): This site contains consecutive amino acid with its r RNA

c.       E
site (exit site): it is a site of ribosomes where vacant t RNA is present.






of Translation

Steps involved in translation are given below.




mRNA attach to a small ribosomal subunit. AUG is the origination codon on mRNA .
The beginning codon of RNA mRNA arrange in a line with the p site of the
ribosomes. Initiation codon contain mRNA with a tRNA. The large subunit

this complex. It forms a complete ribosomes.



p site A (amino acyl) site is present. It has 2nd codon. A 2nd
t RNA combines on this codon which contains an anticodon. Two t RNA including
amino acids are now side by side in A-site. Requirement of this step is energy
and enzymes. Guanine triphosphate be responsible for energy to this step. in
the P site, the bond between the amino acid and t RNA is break by an enzyme
peptidyl transferase. the formation of a peptide bond between that amino acid
and the amino acids in the A site is also controlled by this enzyme.

mRNA strand then moves along the ribosomes. It exposes new codon. The t RNA
with their two amino acids moves to P site. A third t RNA can now enter the
exposed A site. This process continues and all the complete mRNA has been






ribosome binds at the end of the mRNA. The polypeptide chain has been
synthesized. Termination codon like UAA comes and translation stops.

of protein:

are the factories of protein synthesis. Most of the ribosomes are attached on
the surface of the RER. The newly formed protein moves into the ER. The protein
then moves to into the Golgi apparatus. The formed protein is then excreted in
the form of excretory vesicle or lysosomes.






Translation is the process of creating a
polypeptide from mRNA. Making protein is important. DNA is transcribed
into mRNA (transcription) 
mRNA translated into amino acid (translation). The sequence
of amino acid determines the polypeptide chain, or the protein. Protein is
essential to life.









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