(TB) is an infection caused by
the growth of slow-growing bacteria in the areas of the body that rich in blood and oxygen . The most common site of tuberculosis is in
the lungs and it is
called as pulmonary tuberculosis . However ,
tuberculosis can also found in other parts of the body such as the brain and spine
which is then
known as extra-pulmonary tuberculosis .
Treatment always work successfully , but it takes a very long period of time
which is about 6 to 9 months . But some tuberculosis infections takes up to 2
years for complete recovery . There are two
organisms which cause tuberculosis , they are Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium
There are two types of tuberculosis, which
include latent tuberculosis infection and active tuberculosis.
TB results when a person has the TB bacteria inside their body, but the
quantity of bacteria is very small . They are monitored by the body’s immune
system and do not bring on any symptoms as the bacteria is in an inactivate
state . Individuals with latent TB are not infectious and do not feel
sick . The bacteria within the body of the infected individuals cant pass on to
other people. They will usually have a negative sputum test and a normal chest
x-ray . After they have had a test, such as the TB skin test , then we can only
be determined that someone has latent TB . Latent TB, also known as inactive TB isn’t contagious but can
TB over period of time , so treatment is very crucial for the person with latent
TB in order to
control the spread of TB to other people .
tuberculosis results when someone get infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and
it is characterized by signs or symptoms
of active disease which is different from latent tuberculosis infection as it
occurs without any signs or symptoms of active disease. In this condition , someone may sick and the bacteria can spread to others . Its occurrence is in the first few weeks after infection with the TB bacteria or few years later after exposure to the bacteria . Signs and symptoms of active TB may include
chest pain, or pain with breathing or coughing , coughing that lasts three or more
weeks, coughing up blood , fever , fatigue ,unintentional weight loss , night
sweats, chills and loss of appetite .
Tuberculosis can affect many parts of
the body, including lungs , kidneys, spine or brain. When TB occurs in the
organs other than lungs , signs and symptoms may change according to the organs
concerned . For example, back pain may result from tuberculosis of the spine
and appearance of urine in blood may be seen in tuberculosis in kidneys .
Roughly 33% of the worldwide populace
is contaminated with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and in danger of developing the
disease . About two million die every year and more than eight million people
develop active tuberculosis (TB) every year . In the developing world , there is
more than 90% of global TB cases and deaths happen , where three-quater
cases are happened between 15-54 years . An adult with TB will lose on about
three to four months of work time which cause 20-30% loss of income and an
average of 15 years of lost income, if the patient with Tb dies . TB can also
cause indirect negative consequences such as youngsters may skip school because
of their parents’ tuberculosis or women are surrendered by their families as a
result of their illness . There is an increased risk of developing TB with the
coinfection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) .
Tuberculosis is transmitted through
the air , like a flu or cold .Tiny
droplets that contain the germs are released into the air when someone talks ,
laughs , coughs , sneezes or sings .
Someone may get infected if these nasty germs are inhaled into the body .
TB is therefore contagious and it’s often spread among co-workers, friends, and
family members. A lot of time had to spend around a person who has TB as the
germs grow slowly .
The main cause of TB
is human immunodeficiency virus ( HIV ) . It has proven that the number of
cases of tuberculosis had increased significantly since 1980s because of the
spread of HIV . HIV virus may suppress the body immune system, making it very
difficult for the body to control and eliminate TB bacteria . As a result,
people with HIV are more likely than are people who aren’t HIV positive to get
TB and to progress from latent to active disease .
Another reason of
tuberculosis is the increase in drug resistant strains of the tuberculosis .
Drug-resistant strains of tuberculosis will form when an antibiotic