Tumor tumor suppressors by about 50 years

Tumor cells reprogram existing metabolic pathways of gaining
nutrients (Choi,  2012). Cancer metabolism is one of the
oldest areas studied in cancer biology, thus this fact has been known for
years. This awareness preceded the discovery of oncogenes and tumor suppressors
by about 50 years and these programmed changes are now an accepted hallmark of
cancer. Understanding the reasons and the mechanisms behind these alterations
for the benefits of cancer cells is the key toward supporting the development
of new strategies for cancer treatment (DeBerardinis and Navdeep, 2016). Relative to
normal non-transformed cells, the metabolic alterations promote acquisition and
maintenance of malignant properties. Generally, these reprogramming either help
in supporting cell viability under stressful conditions or allow cells to grow
with an unlimited replicative potential (Romero-Garcia et al., 2011). Pathologically
increased level of replication, self-sustained growth signals, continual
angiogenesis, resistance to anti-growth signals, metastatic tissue invasion and
avoiding apoptosis: these are six typical properties that are associated with
cells that have undergone malignant transformation (Kalyanaraman, 2017) Two new
characteristics have recently been added to this list: evasion of the host
immune destruction and reprogramming of energy metabolism with the latter being
the subject of focus in this thesis.