Vehicular Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANETs) that are used

Vehicular Ad-hoc networks (VANETs) are special
kind of Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANETs) that are used to V2V and V2I communication
forming an intelligent transport system by vehicles equipped with wireless
gadgets 70.Basically VANET enables infrastructure-to-Vehicle (I2V),
Vehicle-to-Infrastructure (V2I) and Vehicles to Vehicle (V2V) communication
with covering the aspects of Wireless Access for the Vehicular Environment standards
based on the emerging IEEE 802.11p specifications 71. Similar to Wireless
ad-hoc networks,VANETs also don’t need fixed infrastructure for communication
and dissemination of information.A VANET platform most likely contain onboards
sensors by position based routing. As OSI or Internet protocol model becomes
very useful to traditional networks,It leads VANETs to adapt the traditional layer
protocol stack.In this approach,VANETs contain almost all protocol layers of
the OSI referance model.In addition with this,VANETs added additional
functionalies.VANETs applications do evaluation of information,marge it with with
their own state and take decision about the exchaned of updated informations 72.


Cellular/WLAN                   b) Ad-hoc 
                    c) Hybrid 

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Figure 13
: Network architectures for VANETs  71


The network architectures could be divided
into three groups e.g pure cellular networks/WLAN,pure ad-hoc and hybrid. A
pure cellular networks/WLAN is shown in Figure 13 (a) where VANETs may use  WLAN / Wimax access points and fixed cellular  gateway at traffic intersections to connect to
the internet and collect information or for routing purpose.Figure 13 (b) shows
Ad-hoc network for VaNETs where fixed or stationary gateways around the road
sides provides connectivity to the mobile nodes (Vehicles) to perform vehicle
to vehicle communicationa and achivecertain goals.Combining of of pure cellular
networks and Ad-hoc networks together can build a useful network for VANETs which
is shown id Figure 13 (c).Its known as Hybrid network for VANETs 71. Namboodiri
described hybrid architectures which uses vehicles with both cellular and WLAN as
a gateways and mobile routers to connect vehicles with WLAN capabilities so
that they can communicate through multi-hop links with the whole world 73.












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